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PSYCHOLOGY: MAKING CONNECTIONS

PSYCHOLOGY: MAKING CONNECTIONS

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PSYCHOLOGY: MAKING CONNECTIONS

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  1. PSYCHOLOGY: MAKING CONNECTIONS GREGORY J. FEIST ERIKA L. ROSENBERG Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  2. Psychological Disorders Chapter Fifteen Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  3. Preview Questions • How do we know whether or not someone’s behavior is disordered? • What causes mental illness? • Should I be concerned about my roommate, who is tired all the time and doesn't feel like doing anything? Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  4. Preview Questions • What is the chance that my friend who has an identical twin sister with bipolar disorder will also develop this disorder? Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  5. Chapter Preview • Defining Psychological Disorders • Anxiety Disorders • Mood Disorders • Schizophrenia • Dissociative Disorders Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  6. Chapter Preview • Breaking New Ground: Abuse, Disorders, and the Dynamic Brain Personality Disorders • Childhood Disorders • Making Connections in Psychological Disorders: Creativity and Mental Health Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  7. Defining Psychological Disorders • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV-TR (DSM-IV-TR) • Axis I • Syndromes • Comorbidity • Axis II • Axis III • Axis IV • Axis V Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  8. Anxiety Disorders Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  9. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) • Characterized by a pervasive and excessive state of anxiety lasting at least six months • “Worry warts” Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  10. Panic Disorder With or Without Agoraphobia • Panic disorder • Panic attacks • Sudden, short period of extreme anxiety involving physiological and psychological symptoms and intense fear • Agoraphobia • Intense fear of being in places from which escape might be difficult or in which help might not be available should a panic attack occur Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  11. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) • Triggered by exposure to a catastrophic or horrifying event that poses serous harm or threat • Reexperiencing the trauma • Avoiding thoughts, feelings, and activities associated with the trauma • Increased arousal, irritability, difficulty sleeping, or exaggerated startle response Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  12. Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder) • Pronounced fear of humiliation in the presence of others • Marked by severe self-consciousness about appearance or behavior or both Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  13. Specific Phobias • Characterized by intense fear of particular objects or situations • Marked by an intense and immediate fear, even panic, when confronted with very particular situations or objects Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  14. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder • Obsession • Unwanted thought, word, phrase, or image that persistently and repeatedly comes into a person’s mind and causes distress Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  15. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder • Compulsion • Repetitive behavior performed in response to uncontrollable urges or according to a ritualistic set of rules Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  16. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder • Impulse-control disorder • Related to OCD in which a person feels an intense, repetitive desire to perform certain behaviors Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  17. Nature and Nurture Explanations of Anxiety Disorders • Diathesis-stress model • Combination of biological predispositions (diathesis) plus stress on an abusive environment Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  18. Mood Disorders Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  19. Depression and Its Causes • Major depressive disorder • Characterized by pervasive low mood, lack of motivation, low energy, and feelings of worthlessness and guilt that last for at least two consecutive weeks • Dysthymia • Form of depression that is milder that major depressive disorder Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  20. Depression and Its Causes • Combination of brain chemistry and life circumstance • Diathesis-stress model • Serotonin gene • Stressful events Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  21. Bipolar Disorder and Its Causes • Characterized by substantial mood fluctuations, a cycling between very low and very high moods • Manic episode • Cyclothymia • Relatively mild form of bipolar disorder Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  22. Bipolar Disorder and Its Causes • May be seen in development of fetus in a woman who abused alcohol • Genetic component • Neurochemistry of brain • Stress and trauma Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  23. The Bipolar Brain Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  24. Major Symptoms and Behaviors of Mood Disorders Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  25. Schizophrenia Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  26. Major Symptoms of Schizophrenia • Positive • Hallucinations • Delusional thinking • Disorganized thought and speech Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  27. Major Symptoms of Schizophrenia • Negative • Non-responsiveness • Emotional flatness • Immobility • Catatonia • Problems with speech • Inability to complete tasks Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  28. Major Symptoms of Schizophrenia • Cognitive • Problems with working memory • Attention • Verbal and visual learning and memory • Reasoning and problem solving • Speed of processing • Disordered speech • Word salad Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  29. Subtypes of Schizophrenia • Paranoid • preoccupation with delusions and auditory hallucinations • Catatonic • Two of the following: • Extreme immobility or excessive activity, peculiar posturing, mutism, or parroting what other people say Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  30. Subtypes of Schizophrenia • Disorganized • Exhibits both disorganized speech and behavior and flat or inappropriate affect • Undifferentiated • General symptoms of delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized speech Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  31. Nature and Nurture Explanations of Schizophrenia • Maternal infections and schizophrenia • Influenza • Rubella • Toxoplasmosis • Herpes Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  32. Nature and Nurture Explanations of Schizophrenia • Schizophrenia and the brain • Abnormal brain development before birth • Dysfunctional prefrontal cortex Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  33. Nature and Nurture Explanations of Schizophrenia • Neurochemistry of schizophrenia • Dopamine hypothesis • Glutamate deficiencies • Crucial in • Learning • Memory • Neural processing • Brain development • Amplifies certain neural signals Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  34. Dissociative Disorders Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  35. Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) • Development of at least two distinct personalities, each with its own memories, thoughts, behaviors, and emotions • “Multiple personality” Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  36. Causes of Dissociative Disorders • Lived through a highly traumatic experience • Sexual or physical abuse • Survived a terrible accident or natural disaster in which one was killed Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  37. Breaking New Ground: Abuse, Disorders, and the Dynamic Brain Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  38. Abuse and Neglect Change Brains • Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) study • Abuse and neglect shape long-term behavior, physical, and psychological health • Illness and disease, substance abuse, aggression and violence, and depression and schizophrenia were more likely to occur after being abused Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  39. Personality Disorders Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  40. Odd-Eccentric Personality Disorders • Schizoid personality disorder • Wants a solitary life • Does not want close relationships • Emotionally aloof • Reclusive • Humorless Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  41. Odd-Eccentric Personality Disorders • Schizotypal personality disorder • Isolated and asocial • Has very odd thoughts and beliefs • Might think that stories in the newspaper or on the news are written directly about them Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  42. Odd-Eccentric Personality Disorders • Paranoid personality disorder • Extremely suspicious and mistrustful of other people in ways that are both unwarranted and not adaptive • Test loyalty of their friends and lovers • Hold grudges for a long time Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  43. Dramatic-Emotional Personality Disorders • Histrionic personality disorder • Want to be the center of attention • Dramatic, seductive, flamboyant, and exaggerated behavior • Emotional • Intense • Self-centered • Shallow in emotions and relationships Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  44. Dramatic-Emotional Personality Disorders • Borderline personality disorder • Out-of-control emotions • Afraid of being abandoned by others • Vacillate between idealizing and despising those who are close to them • Likely to hurt themselves or suffer from eating disorders or substance abuse Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  45. Dramatic-Emotional Personality Disorders • Narcissistic personality disorder • Extremely positive and arrogant self-image • Attention is self-focused • Exaggerated sense of self-importance • Grandiose • Think they are “God’s gift to humanity” Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  46. Dramatic-Emotional Personality Disorders • Antisocial personality disorder • Impulsive • Deceptive • Violent • Ruthless behavior • Engage in criminal behavior Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  47. Anxious-Fearful Personality Disorder • Avoidant personality disorder • Afraid of being criticized • Avoid interacting with others • Become socially isolated • Feel inadequate • Have low self-esteem Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  48. Anxious-Fearful Personality Disorder • Dependent personality disorder • Fear being rejected • Strong need to be cared for • Form clingy and dependent relationships with others • Feel safe only in relationships but tend to drive others away, because they are too demanding Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  49. Anxious-Fearful Personality Disorder • Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder • Very rigid in habits • Extremely perfectionistic • More general than obsessive-compulsive disorder Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  50. Nature and Nurture Explanations of Personality Disorders • Focus on antisocial personality disorder • Being male • Being from abusive and neglectful households • Having at least one psychological disorder • Head or brain injury Copyright 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.