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Ancient History of Latin America. Ch. 9 Sec. 2. Ancient Empires. Olmecs: 1400 BC-500 BC Mxn Gulf Coast Ruled by priests & royals/elite No mention of military? Known for giant stone heads (40 tons) Mastered crafts- rubber, jade, stone carving. Ancient Empires. Mayan: 250-900

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Ancient History of Latin America


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    1. Ancient History of Latin America Ch. 9 Sec. 2

    2. Ancient Empires • Olmecs: 1400 BC-500 BC • Mxn Gulf Coast • Ruled by priests & royals/elite • No mention of military? • Known for giant stone heads (40 tons) • Mastered crafts- rubber, jade, stone carving

    3. Ancient Empires • Mayan: 250-900 • Southern MX/ Northern CA (Guatemala/ Yucatan Pen.) • Tikal & Chichen Itza major cities • Ruled by priests & nobles • Priests performed sacrifices for good harvests, war success

    4. Ancient Empires • Mayan cont’d • Extensive farming techniques/terracing • Lots of maize pop. grew quickly • Dev. glyphs for recording hist. & honoring gods (Spanish burned most books many left untranslated) • 365 day solar calendar

    5. Tikal (Guatemala) Chichen Itza

    6. Ancient Empires • Aztecs: 1300s-1520s • Founded Tenochtitlán in C. MX Island in Lake Texcoco • Chinampas- floating islands • Foods shared with world • maize (corn) • chocolate (xocoatl)- only for elite though- “Food of the gods” • tomatoes

    7. Ancient Empires • Aztecs cont’d • Ruled by emperor next military, then majority (farmers), last were criminals & slaves • Priests had own class • Human sacrifices to sun god to rise ea. day • Tens of thousands: mostly P.O.W.s and some noble family members

    8. Ancient Empires • Inca: 1430s-1530s • Andes Mtns, Ecuador  Chile • Ruled by emperor (Sapa Inca) • Then military (very oppressive) • Extensive road network thru mtns (rivals Romans) • Runners to warn of rebellion, invaders • All roads went thru Cuzco

    9. Original Incan road Machu Picchu

    10. Ancient Empires • Inca cont’d • Used quipu for record keeping (for traders) • Spoke Quechua (dev. into ethnic grp.) • No written lang. • Masters of terracing & irrigation from Pac. Ocn. • Domesticated alpacas & llamas

    11. Terracing Quipu

    12. Decline of Empires • Olmecs: ?? (volcano, absorbed) • Mayan: ?? (frequent war??, overpop. over farm??) • Aztecs: Span. conquistador Hernán Cortés (1521) • Inca: Span. conquistador Francisco Pizarro (1535)

    13. European Conquests • From 1500s-1700s • Colonizing for power and resources for home country • Columbian Exchange • As disease killed many Natives, they began enslaving Africans to meet labor shortages

    14. Latin American Revolutions

    15. Sources of Discontent- Late 1700s • Viceroys- Spanish governors • Peninsulares- Spaniards living in LA • Creoles- straight Euro. descent • Mestizos- Native + Euro. • Mulattoes- Afn. + Euro. • Zambos- Native + Afn. • Amerindians- Natives ALL distrusted one another

    16. Sources of Discontent • Peninsulares/Viceroys wanted self-rule • Creoles read works of Enlightenment thinkers; All looked to Amn & Fr. Rev wanted more rights • Nat. & Afns wanted freedom from slavery • Finally acted when Napoleon defeated Spain (made weaker)

    17. Haiti’s Struggle • French-ruled • Sugar & coffee plantations = 1/2 million slaves lots of $ for France • 25,000 free (but not equal) mulattoes

    18. Haiti’s Struggle • Revolted in 1791 • Led by Toussaint L’Ouverture • Former slave, but educated • Napoleon went in to regain, but Pres. TJ aided rebels • 1804: Complete independence

    19. Haiti is first non-slave nation in Western Hemisphere

    20. Mexico’s Fight • Father Hidalgo: El Grito de Dolores • 1810: cry for independence • encouraged lower class (mestizos) to fight for indep. and more rights • Hidalgo was executed Fr. Jose Morales led fight (later executed) • Creoles (pure Span. descent) against rebels at 1st

    21. Mexico’s Fight • 1820: new govn’t in Spain  scared Creoles  fought with rebels  won in 1821 • Set up monarchy 1st, later a republic never stable

    22. United Central America followed suit (early 1820s) • Union broke: • Guatemala • Nicaragua • Honduras • El Salvador • Costa Rica • But how do they know how to rule themselves?

    23. Simón Bolívar • 1810: Bolivar led revolt in Venezuela  form republic (did not last) • Went on to Ecuador, Peru, & Bolivia republics • Joined Jose de San Martin • Leader in Argentina & Chile

    24. Simón Bolívar • Wars ended in 1824 • Tried to unite lands into Gran Colombia  • Biggest problem: Power struggles caused huge civil wars turn to military

    25. Brazil • Napoleon beat Portugal  • Royals fled to Brazil  • King made reforms  • Left son Dom Pedro to rule… • But new powers in Portugal were against Dom Pedro…

    26. Brazil • He made Brazil independent constitutional monarchy • Freedom of press & religion; elected legislature • 1889: became republic w/o any violence

    27. Dictatorships • As the countries fought for indep., power went to new people • European & indigenous hist. stressed rank & privilege • So ppl of power and strength were natural fit • Enter the era of CAUDILLOS (dictators)

    28. Dictatorships • Haiti: • Instability stays • Blacks vs. mulattoes- assassination of each other’s leaders • Many military coups (even of democratically elected pres!), US occupancy, military dictatorships • UN peacekeepers present since 2004

    29. Dictatorships • Mexico: • Series of military dictatorships • beginning with Santa Anna • 1920s: Had “ify” multi-party elections (PRI ruled for 70+ yrs) • Charged with fraud, unfair elections • Venezuela • From Bolivar on, dictatorships gave into military regimes

    30. Dictatorships • Brazil: • Dom Pedro’s son helped econ. and ended slavery landowners revolted to oust emperor • Set up fed. Republic • Lack of democratic tradition brought about decades of dictatorships, Nazi, & Communist uprisings • 1985 marked 1st civilian president

    31. Dictatorships • People are unhappy REVOLT • Option A: the military puts out revolt and resumes power to keep order • Option B: rebels win & put in someone military/wealthy don’t like  military coup

    32. Caribbean Independence • 1898: Cuba from Spain • 1900s: Jamaica & Barbados from Britain • Some still under foreign control

    33. Panama Canal • Isthmus perfect place to connect oceans • Ferdinand de Lesseps (Suez Canal) tried but failed • Disease, geography, $ • Bunau-Varilla asked US pres TR (1901) to aid building

    34. Panama Canal • Panama was part of Colombia at time • Col. refused to give up land • Panamanians revolted, US helped them • Panama gained independence (1903) • Canal began in 1904, until 1914 • US owned until 1999

    35. Cuba • Like others, ppl were discontent with govn’t • Cuba- gap b/w rich and poor • Revolution led by Fidel Castro set up Communist State with military dictator (1959) • Ruled until 06-08 left Raul (brother) in power

    36. Change • Mexico: • Mid-90s gave rise to Zapatista rebels • Fight for indigenous rights spreads • 2000 marked PAN take over (Vicente Fox, Felipe Calderon) • Venezuela: • Coups lasted into 90s, one even by current leftist Pres. Chavez • Electorate voted him in b/c he was a strong ruler in a time a of crisis