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History of Latin America - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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History of Latin America
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  1. History of Latin America Chapters 10 and 11

  2. Mexico • Native Peoples • Teotihuacan, Toltec, Maya, Aztecs

  3. Spanish Conquest • 1519, Cortes landed • Conquered the Aztecs

  4. Spanish Conquest • When Cortes conquered the Aztecs they built Mexico City on top of Tenochtitlan. • They also combined the cultures of Spain and the Native Aztecs • Brought the Catholic religion and Spanish language • Created a culture known as mestizo, or the combination of Native American and Spanish

  5. Mexico gained independence in 1821 • Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) • Est. 1929 • Introduced democracy and political stability

  6. Urbanization of Mexico • Most Mexican citizens are moving into the larger cities of Mexico • Maquiladoras • Large manufacturing areas along the northern border • Imported goods are assembled into finished products, which are then exported to other countries • North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) • Creates a trade zone between the United States, Canada, and Mexico • Allows goods to travel freely between the three countries

  7. Central America • Cultural Hearth: place from which important ideas spread • Mayan Influence • Guatemala

  8. United Provinces of Central America • Declared independence from Mexico in 1823 • Split into separate countries in 1830s

  9. Panama Canal • Cuts through Panama and connects the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. • One of the most important shipping lanes in the world. • Uses a series of locks to move ships through the Canal • Owned by the United States until it was given to Panama in 1999

  10. When the Spanish conquered the Caribbean, they tried to enslave the Native Americans • Needed them to work on the sugar plantations, but the Native Americans kept escaping or dying. • Spain and other European countries began to bring in slaves from Africa.

  11. Culture is a blend of Native American influence and Spanish influence=Mestizo • Language and religion • Spanish • Catholic • Protestant

  12. South America • Inca • Andes Mountains • Empire ran 2500 miles along west coast

  13. Spanish conquered Incas in 1500s • Forced religion and language on Natives

  14. Independence Movements • Inspired by American and French Revolutions • Simon Bolivar • Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia • Jose de San Martin • Argentina, Chile, Peru

  15. Mercosur • Economic group that allows free trading between the countries of South America • Member countries: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay (Venezuela is about to become a member) • Goal is to encourage trading and cooperation in South America • Similar to NAFTA

  16. Brazil • Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) • Portuguese gained control of modern day Brazil • Gained independence in 1822

  17. Migration in Brazil • Urbanization • The gap between the rich and poor is vast in Brazil • Millions are moving to the cities for manufacturing jobs • Moving to the Interior • 80% of Brazilians live close to the ocean • The government is encouraging movement to the cerrado (plains) for farming

  18. Current Issues for Latin America • Unstable governments • Rainforest resources being depleted

  19. Unstable government • Historically, Latin American countries have been oligarchies • A government run by a few people or small group

  20. Unstable Government • How oligarchies succeed: *majority control of military • Censored the press • Limited free speech • Punished dissent

  21. Unstable Government • Sometimes the military would rule in a junta which is run by generals • During the 20th century, many countries were run by a caudillo, a military dictator

  22. Establishing Stable Democracies • Goals of reform: • Est. constitutional government • Have a freely elected government • Participation of citizens

  23. Rain Forest Resources Rainforest Resources • Biodiversity: wide range of plant and animal species • By the end of the 20th century, nearly 50 million acres of rain forests worldwide had been destroyed • Biodiversity: wide range of plant and animal species • By the end of the 20th century, nearly 50 millions acres of rain forests worldwide will have been destroyed

  24. Rain Forest Resources Rainforest Resources • Deforestation: cutting down and clearing away of trees • Rain forests help regulate the earth’s climate • Home to about 50% of world’s plant and animal species • Deforestation: cutting down and clearing away of trees • Rainforests help regulate the earth’s climate • Home to about 50% of world’s plant and animal species

  25. Rainforest Resources • Debt-for-nature swap: environmental organization agrees to pay off a certain amount of government debt and in return, the government agrees to protect a certain portion of the rain forest