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Chapter 6
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  1. The Age of Discovery Chapter 6

  2. Expansion • Europe made little progress since the Romans ruled. • By 1650-all changed • Mid-16th Century • More people reaching adulthood • Disease-less devastating • Climate better

  3. Markets • Population increases • Demand (Economics Class) • Increases • Supply can not keep up • Problems • Example-peasants move to cities • Crime • Violence • Prostitution

  4. Commercial Revolution • New System of banking-money • Capitalism-Free Market • Individual-buy what they want • Produce what they want • Keep Profit • Adam Smith-”Wealth of Nations” • Invisible Hand-controls the economy • No gov’t involvement is needed

  5. Mercantilism • Gov’t responsible to promote the country’s economy • Limit imports-protect domestic goods • Control natural resources • Mother country • Controls production of colonies • England-Colonies

  6. Banks • Develop in major E. Cities • Joint Stock Companies • England • Investors share risk of exploring • Win-Make money • Lose-less risk involved • Safer way to make money • Let others do the hard work • You take profit

  7. Europeans fascinated w/ travel Exotic lands Mystery and excitement The Travels of John Mandeville Spoke of gold and wealth Fantastic lands

  8. Trade opens up Seeking gold and riches Greatest motivator Creates competition Money, money, money

  9. Crusade mentality Portugal and Spain-push Cath. Save lost souls of nat. am. Gold glory god. Religion

  10. New Maritime Technologies Better Maps [Portulan] Hartman Astrolabe(1532) Mariner’s Compass Sextant

  11. A Map of the Known World,pre- 1492

  12. New Weapons Technology

  13. Canons

  14. Monarchies-power of king money to support exploration Increases - result of Renn. Portugal-too weak to rule Europe Go elsewhere Dominate early trade How it happened

  15. Better maps Navigational tools Understanding of Atlantic Ocean Better ships technology

  16. Prince Henry, the Navigator • School for Navigation, 1419

  17. Spread Christianity Money, money, money Hatred towards muslims Financial jealosy Henry’s Motives

  18. 1419 Travel south West coast/Africa 1441-begin trading slaves School for Navigators

  19. Vasco da Gama-Turns Cape of Good Hope Arrives in India-1498 “Christians and spices” Returns with ginger, cinnamon and profit Getting to Inda

  20. Port. Destroy muslim trade 1509-Port. Armada (navy) Control trade Wipe out competition

  21. Search more spices cut off hands of men noses and ears of women Port. Control spice trade and destroy Arab competition controlled trade along China and Indian coast Could not colonize-not strong enough Port get nasty

  22. Guns, guns and more guns Good seamanship Knew the way of the ocean How to fight and inflict pain when necc. Why so Good?

  23. Christofo Colon [1451-1506]

  24. Italian-funded by Spanish Reach Asia-going West Oct 12,1492-reaches Bahamas Find gold and converts Opens up trade New voyages Did not discover America Christopher Columbus

  25. The Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 & The Pope’s Line of Demarcation

  26. Amerigo Vespucci - Florentine Wrote letters home Known as Amerigo’s letters America is born Others join da party

  27. First to circumnavigate the earth Killed by natives one of five ships makes back to spain. Spanish dominate trade Magellan

  28. Greed and glory Privately paid Advanced weapons Internal conflicts Easy victories Conquistadors

  29. Mexico and Central Am. Ancient Mayan civ. Advanced and complicated Aztecs move in Incredible civ. Modern day Mexico MesoAmerica

  30. Conquers Aztecs Montezuma-Aztec Emperor Believes Cortes is Quetzalcoatl-god returning Monte-gives up Fear the Spanish Smallpox and disease Destroy-pyramids, palaces 1531-1550 Spanish control Mexico Hernan Cortes

  31. The “Columbian Exchange”

  32. Queen Isabella-permitted Spanish to conquer and control natives Natives used for the gain and profit of Spanish in Peru and Mexico Laborers Work in gold and silver mines No pay-cruel 40% wiped out by disease Encomienda System

  33. Convert the workers • Had to convert natives • Return for right to enslave them • So many died • Look to African slaves

  34. The Colonial Class System Peninsulares-old world Creoles-new world Mestizos Half N.A Half-Euro Mulattos ½ African ½ Euro Native Indians Black Slaves

  35. Practiced in Africa for centuries Brought to Europe Domestic servants Discovery of America-1492 Sugar cane -southern colonies 1518-first slave ship lands in America By 19th cent. 10 million slaves-America The Slave Trade

  36. Conecting Europe, Africa and the America’s Guns and gin to Africa for slaves Slaves sold in America’s Europeans brought tobacco, sugar, rum and coffee back to Europe Triangular Trade

  37. Slave Ship “Middle Passage”

  38. “Coffin” Position Below Deck

  39. Devastated African life Demand increased-so did violence Using guns from earlier trades West Africa Flourishing-art and tech advances-16th cent. By 19 cent. Corrupt and in ruins Impact of Slave Trade

  40. Western society-accepted slaves Africans were inferior Quakers-1770’s Speak out against slavery French abolish-1790’s British-1807 America-1865 Why use slaves?

  41. Port. Arrive 1498 English and Dutch-follow 1650 England dominating trade Cotton needed for European clothes Create East India Co. Port. Arrive in India

  42. Joint Stock Co. Individuals buy shares in Co. Run by Board of Directors Investors receive dividends Money returned on original investment 30-40% profit Big time money Sir Robert Clive-founder East India Co.

  43. West Indies French and English develop plantation systems Coffee, cotton and tobacco Britain - Jamaica 200,000 slaves French-St. Dominque-Haiti-500,000 slaves 100,000 tons of sugar a year produced The America’s

  44. Originally Spanish claim N. Am. Dutch move in Henry Hudson-river-Bronx up to Albany Create New Netherlands English move in-New York Jamestown-1607-Virginia British in N. America

  45. Nat. Am. Destroyed Disease and social structure wiped out China and Japan remain isolated Impact on Conquered

  46. Sp. Rulers authorize inter-racial marriage Mestizos-Nat. Am. and Europeans 8 million slaves-mulattoes Multi-racial Melting pot mentality Latin America

  47. Dominicans, Franciscans and Jesuits Enouraged natives grow crops Hospitals, orpahnages and schools. China-little impact Disagree over ancestor worship Pope against it Here come the Catholics

  48. Arrive from Europe Find Wealthy farmer to marry Have very ugly kids Ugly husband dies Leaves rich ugly wife Ugly white women