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Chapter 2 Section 1. Civilization Begins in Mesopotamia. GUESS WHAT DAY IT IS?!. Mesopotamia. City- states. Eridu , Ur, and Uruk were major city locations. They had political and economic control over the countryside. Developed social class separation .

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chapter 2 section 1

Chapter 2 Section 1

Civilization Begins in Mesopotamia

city states
City- states
  • Eridu, Ur, and Uruk were major city locations.
  • They had political and economic control over the countryside.
  • Developed social class separation.
    • Lower class were poor, taxed, and treated badly.
    • Upper class were seen as spoiled and rich.
cuneiform
Cuneiform
  • Why did writing develop?
  • Mesopotamia needed to trade.
  • Writing system was used as a way to communicate.
  • Helped keep records of everything.
conquest
Conquest
  • Early Sumerians were defensively weak
    • Separation of classes
  • Akkadians led by Sargon overran Sumerian cities.
    • Took control of all major cities.
god above all
God above all…
  • Theocracy meant “God himself was king.”
  • Was believed because of the rivers
    • People wanted to please Gods to make them happy.
  • Eventually died out when leaders began developing holy images.
    • Led to monarchy
code of hammurabi
Code of Hammurabi
  • Named after King Hammurabi
  • “An eye for an eye”
  • Set of laws which laid out punishments.
  • Laws covered many topics
    • Trade, Debt, Property, Marriage, Childbearing
examples of code
Examples of Code
  • If a man weaves a spell and puts a band upon another man and has not justified himself, he…shall be put to death.
  • If a man has stolen the goods of a temple or palace, that man shall be killed, and he who has received the stolen thing from his hand shall be put to death.
  • If the owner of the lost property has not brought witnesses knowing his lost property, he has lied. He has stirred up strife; he shall be put to death.
  • If a man accused a nun or the wife of another man, but has proved nothing, they shall drag that man into the presence of the judges and also cut off half his hair.
examples of code1
Examples of Code
  • If a woman was not careful, but was a gadabout, this neglecting her house and humiliating her husband, they shall throw that woman into the water.
  • If a man has destroyed the eye of a member of the aristocracy, they shall destroy his eye. If he has broken another man’s bone, they shall break his bone. If he has destroyed the eye of a commoner or broken the bone of a commoner, he shall pay one mina of silver. If he has destroyed the eye of another man’s slave or broken the bone of a man’s slave, he shall pay one-half of the slave’s value.