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Presentation Transcript
slide2

American social development has been continually beginning over again on the Frontier. This perennial rebirth, this fluidity of American life, this expansion westward with its new opportunities, its continuous touch with the simplicity of primitive society, furnish the forces dominating American character. The true point of view in the history of this nation is not the Atlantic coast, it is the Great West.

- Frederick Jackson Turner, 1893

manifest destiny
Manifest Destiny
  • Louisiana Purchase (1803)
  • Lewis & Clark Expedition (1804-1806)
  • Mexican-American War (1846-1848)
the civil war
The Civil War
  • Manifest Destiny – no more
  • Concentration is on war
the west settlement of the last frontier
The West: Settlement of the Last Frontier
  • Postbellum Period
    • People begin to move West
    • Known as the “Great Desert”
    • 1900 – Heavily inhabited
      • Buffalo population is down by 95%
      • Railroads choking out Native American lands
slide6

Groups of Settlers:

    • Miners
    • Cattlemen
    • Farmers
    • Miners
      • Gold Rush – 1848
      • Settled much of CA and OR
      • Colorado
        • Pike’s Peak – 1859
        • 100,000 inhabitants
      • Nevada
        • Comstock Lode (1864)
slide7

Speculators

    • Placer mining
    • Deep-shaft mining
      • Investment and capital
  • Boomtowns
    • Virginia City, NV
    • San Francisco, CA
    • Sacramento, CA
    • Denver, CO
slide8

Problems in CA:

    • Immigration – mostly Asian
    • Miner’s Tax
      • $20/mo
      • ALL foreign-born miners
    • Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
      • Eliminated immigration from China
      • Renewed in 1892
slide9

The Cattle Frontier

    • Economic opportunities
    • Railroad
      • Postwar – opened up East to the West
      • Cow Towns
        • Abilene, TX
        • Dodge City, KS
        • Chicago, IL
        • “Long-Drive”
          • Chisholm Trail
          • Goodnight Loving Trail
slide10

Conditions:

    • Workers
      • Mexican immigrants/blacks (exodusters)
      • $1.00/day
    • Farming/grazing methods
      • 1880s – overgrazing
      • 1885-1886 – massive drought
        • Killed 90% of cattle on Plains
      • Privatization of property
        • Joseph Glidden (1874)
slide11

The Farming Frontier

    • Homestead Act of 1862
      • 160 acres
      • 500,000 moved west
      • 2.5 million had to buy land from RRs
      • Problems:
        • No building materials
        • Extreme hot and cold
        • No water
      • Solutions:
        • Sodbusters – sod bricks
        • “Dry farming”
          • Russian Wheat
slide12

“Hurrah for Greer County! The land of the free,

The land of the bedbug, grasshopper, and flea;

I’ll sing of its praises, I’ll tell of its fame;

While starving to death on my government claim.”

searching for an indian policy
Searching for an Indian Policy
  • Antebellum: “one big reservation”
  • “Indian Country” –government nomenclature
  • 1834 – Indian Intercourse Act
    • Whites must have a “license” to move to the West
    • Changes in 1848
native americans
Native Americans
  • Removal of Native Americans
    • 65% live on Great Plains
    • Tribes:
      • Sioux
      • Blackfoot
      • Cheyenne
      • Crow
      • Comanche
  • Conflicts with U.S. Govt.
slide16

Reservation Policy

    • Used to open terrain
    • Settlers moved West
    • Transcontinental RR being built
      • Native American philosophies:
        • Family
        • NO Private Property
    • U.S. government attitude towards indigenous:
      • Reservations!
      • Treaty of Fort Laramie (1851/1868)
slide17

Indian Wars

    • November 1864 – Massacre at Sand Creek
      • John Chivington
      • “Nits make lice”
    • 1867 – Great Sioux War
      • 7th Cavalry loses big!
      • Battle of Little Bighorn
        • Col. George A. Custer
        • Custer’s Last Stand
slide19

“Assimilationists” Respond

    • Dawes Act (1887)
      • Wanted Native Americans to assimilate
      • Give up Ghost Dance
      • Become “civilized”
      • U.S. Govt. divides up tribal lands
      • 47 million acres
      • FAILURE
slide21

Battle of Wounded Knee

    • December 28, 1890
    • Wounded Knee Creek, SD
    • 7th Cavalry – rounds up 350 starving Sioux
    • Demand Sioux to give up weapons
    • Last of the Indian Wars
slide22

Frederick Jackson Turner

    • “The Significance of the Frontier in American History” (1893)
    • Argument:
      • Frontier played a significant role in forming American identity
      • Individualism and ruggedness
      • West was a safety valve for East
      • By 1890 – West was closed
exact exam essay question
Exact Exam Essay Question…
  • In your opinion, was Reconstruction a success or a failure? Did southerners receive a “New South” or was it the same old “Reconstruction South”? In your answer be sure to discuss social, political, and economic issues that “Reconstructionists” faced during this time period.
what do these documents say about reconstruction new south
What do these documents say about Reconstruction/New South?
  • With the people around you, identify:
    • What this document is saying about the South?
    • How does the document describe the conditions in the South (social/cultural, economic, and political)?
    • Does this document exhibit or demonstrate the potential for a New South or is it just the Reconstruction South?
the new south
The “New South”
  • Still recovering from Civil War
  • Henry Grady
    • Pro-industrialization
    • Pro-transcontinental RR
    • Atlanta Constitution article
slide26

Economic Process

    • Cities
      • Birmingham, AL
        • Major symbol of “New South”
        • Steel center
      • Richmond, VA
        • Tobacco center
      • Memphis, TN
        • Lumber capitol
slide27

CHEAP LABOR!

    • Textile industry
      • Georgia, SC, and NC
      • Made more cloth and textiles than New England
      • 1865 – 12 small cotton mills
      • 1900 – 400 cotton mills
        • 100,000 workers
slide28

Continued Poverty

    • Mostly agriculture
    • Poorest region in the country
    • Northern investors controlled ¾ of RRs
    • Money went to bankers and to the North – not Southerners
    • Poverty caused by:
      • Late entry into industrialization
      • Poorly educated work force
slide29

Agriculture

    • Cotton prices drop drastically
    • Farmers lost lands
    • Per capita income declined
    • By 1900 – 50% of whites were tenant farmers – 75% blacks
    • George Washington Carver
slide30

Farmers Unite!

    • 1890 – Farmers’ Southern Alliance
      • 1 million members
    • Colored Farmers’ Southern Alliance
      • 250,000 members
    • Both wanted political and economic reforms
    • Poor whites and black united for a common goal
slide31

Segregation

    • 1877 – Federal troops exit South
    • No more protection for blacks
    • Democrats come into local power
      • White supremacy
      • Separate races
      • KKK
slide32

Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)

  • Jim Crow Laws
    • Grandfather clause
    • Poll tax
    • Literacy tests
    • Voting numbers fall
      • Louisiana
        • 1896 – 130,334
        • 1904 – 1,342