Do Now. Based on your analysis of the photograph, how did industrialization affect workers? . Objective. How did industrialization affect workers?. Industrialization. Industrialization created problems
Based on your analysis of the photograph,
how did industrialization affect workers?
How did industrialization
Industrialization created problems
the attempt to lower production costs and maximize profits meant low pay and long hours for workers
many workers labored under dangerous working conditions
Employers often paid company-town workers in scrip, a form of currency that could be used to buy goods in an employer-owned company-town store with inflated prices.
Working conditions varied in many industries from unsafe to life-threatening. Most factories were poorly lit, badly ventilated, and hazardous
In order to cut costs and maximize profits, factory owners and mine operators refused to pay for safety features
Notice the age of the workers at this glassworks. Working families sometimes found their circumstances so dire that they forced their children to work. Unscrupulous business owners would exploit child laborers in order to cut costs. In Pennsylvania, for example, ten-year old boys commonly worked in the coal mines. By 1900, almost two million children between the ages of ten and fifteen were at work.
Business growth in the late 1800s generally raised the standard of living for most Americans.
Yet periodic unemployment and poor working conditions remained a fact of life for workers
The surplus of cheap unskilled labor, due in part to immigration, gave employers enormous power over the lives of their workers. Factory owners and mine operators, for example, would oftentimes cut wages or fire workers at will
How did workers respond to industrialization?
My Children are
Seven in Number
My children are seven in number.
They have to sleep four in a bed
I’m striking for my fellow workers to get them more clothes and more bread
Shoes, shoes, we're striking for pairs of shoes
Shoes, shoes, we're striking for pairs of shoes…
Many American workers understood the values of cooperation and association. The organization of labor unions provided a means to put these values into action.
Labor unions sought to win the right to collective bargaining, the process by which union members represent workers in negotiations with management.
Several early unions helped advance the cause of labor
Knights of Labor
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
International Ladies’ Garment Workers Union (ILGWU)
Attempts to form labor unions or gain better working conditions often pitted workers and their employers against each other
Both labor and management used a variety of tactics to achieve their goals
During the late nineteenth and early twentieth century strikes often led to violence as business owners sought local, state, and federal support to end walkouts by workers.
With government authorities on their side, business interests usually succeeded in their efforts to thwart union efforts to win gains for workers
The Great Railway Strike
Homestead Strike, Aftermath
In 1894, Pullman railway-car makers in Illinois walked out to protest a wage cut. The strike soon spread, tying up the nation’s rail lines
In response to the strike, President Grover Cleveland sent in federal troops to end the strike.
In the 1895 Supreme Court case In re Debs, the court ruled that the president had the power to deploy troops, even over the objections of the governor of Illinois.
Cleveland’s action confirmed the belief of many that government favored the interests of business over those of labor.
Like the earlier Homestead Strike, the Pullman strike had ended sooner than expected as a result of government support for business.
The Uprising of the Twenty Thousand
Dedicated to the Waistmakers of 1909
In the black of the winter of nineteen nine,
When we froze and bled on the picket line,
We showed the world that women could
And we rose and won with women's might.
Hail the waistmakers of nineteen nine,
Making their stand on the picket line,
Breaking the power of those who reign,
Pointing the way, smashing the chain.
And we gave new courage to the men
Who carried on in nineteen ten
And shoulder to shoulder we'll win through,
Led by the I.L.G.W.U.
On November 23, 1909, more than twenty thousand Yiddish-speaking immigrants, mostly young women in their teens and early twenties, launched an eleven-week general strike in New York’s shirtwaist industry.
Dubbed the Uprising of the 20,000, it was the largest strike by women to date in American history. The young strikers’ courage, tenacity, and solidarity forced the predominantly male leadership in the “needle trades” and the American Federation of Labor to revise their entrenched prejudices against organizing women.
The strikers won only a portion of their demands, but the uprising helped to transform the garment industry into one of the best-organized trades in the United States.
The tragic Triangle Factory Fire of March 1911 would shed light on the unsafe working conditions of sweatshops, sparking progressive reform legislation.
Lawrence Textile Strike
The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW),a radical union of skilled and unskilled laborers, organized a strike against the textile mills in Lawrence, Massachusetts.
The strike proved to one of the greatest successes of that era, and workers won most of their demands.