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Power Quality Solutions Overview

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  1. Power Quality Solutions Overview Presented by Leo Craig MIEE FinstSMM Riello UPS Ltd www.riello-ups.co.uk

  2. Lost of Power Costs!! Cost of Downtime for one hour loss of supply Chemical and Pharmaceutical £1004k Finance/Business £800k Food and Beverage £22k Manufacturing £35K Transport £790k According to Larry Owens of Silicon Valley Power, a blackout costs Sun Microsystems "up to $1 million per minute."source- www.nrel.gov

  3. Did You Know! A typical computer system is subjected to more than 125 potentially devastating power disturbances each month. source - Business Week Every hour of downtime for a typical mid-sized network costs its owner £18,000. source - Business Week One-third of all data loss is caused by power problems.  source - Business Week Half of all computer problems are traced to the power line. source - Business Week The overall cost of these problems to businesses in Europe is estimated to be in a range of £13-20.3 billion per year source - CDA

  4. Power Quality GRID & Distribution Codes Stipulates max / min values of voltage, frequency etc. BS EN 61000-4-7 (G5/4) Harmonics limits and regulations BS EN 50160 Details typical disturbances found on the system. BS EN 61000-4-15 Flicker measurement limits and methods BS EN 61000-4-30 Class A & B for monitoring compliancy

  5. Blackout – Power failure Surge, over-voltage Sag, under-voltage Voltage Spikes High frequency noise Frequency variation Waveshape faults – Frequency shift or Harmonics Power Disturbances Equipment Failure CPU Damage PSU damage Hard Drive damage Data corruption Component stress Component Damage


  6. Power is Essential in a Crisis EXTERNAL SOURCES • Storms • Fuel Shortages • Over demand • JCB Diggers • Bird Strikes • Grid Faults • Dogs October 23, 2006 SHOCKED Gary Davies saw his dog erupt in flames — after it peed on a live power cable. Bailey the Staffordshire bull terrier also cut power to 148 homes by cocking a leg against a faulty pylon. Gary, 42, said: “There was an almighty explosion and the whole street lit up. I turned round and the dog was on fire.” Power was off for five hours in Middlestone Moor, Co Durham. Last night Bailey was recovering at home after being treated for burns. Source The Sun

  7. Power is Essential in a Crisis INTERNAL SOURCE • Factory equipment • Office equipment • Air conditioning and lift drive motors • Nuisance Tripping (Harmonics & PF) • Maintenance • Poor Cable Management

  8. A typical mains supply is quite polluted. Electrical Noise& Transients62.6/Month48.79% Spikes Transients50.7/Month39.52% Sags, Surges & Brownouts 14.4/Month11.22% Mains Failures0.6/Month0.47% Reference: George W. Allen and Donald Segall, IBM Systems Development Division. “Monitoring of Computer Installations for Power Line Disturbances” 1974. Effects of Power Disturbances

  9. EQUIPMENT DAMAGE EQUIPMENT FAILURE CBEMA Voltage Tolerance Curve Computer & Business Equipment Manufacturers Association (CBEMA) curve

  10. Critical Load Process Manufacturing Critical Load Sub Station Data Centre Essential Loads Air Conditioning Non Essential Loads Canteen Applying Protection-Building Overview

  11. Power Solutions

  12. Specification Considerations • Selecting a Solution • Sizing the Equipment • Site Considerations • System Configuration • Autonomy (Battery Back-up time) • Communications

  13. Selecting a Solution What do we need to know? The Disturbance The Severity The Duration The Source The Effect

  14. Comparisons

  15. Comparisons

  16. Sizing a Solution Total load of equipment – Load list Manufacturers rating plate will always be maximum worst case load Stated Amps is often rated at 110Vac and 50% less at 230Vac Using the manufacturers Watts (W) and Current (A) ratings may over- size the solution by up to 50% or worse

  17. Item Quantity Power (w) Total Power (w) Telecoms Switch 2 400 800 Server 4 500 2000 KVM switch 1 150 150 Flat screen TFT 1 100 100 Voice Acquisition Mod 1 650 650 Screening router 2 75 150 LAN switches 13 540 7020 TOTAL POWER REQUIRED Watts 10870 TOTAL POWER REQUIRED Amps 47.26 Sizing a UPS – Case Study, DWP From the published information the UPS was sized with a load of 10.87kW. A 15kVA UPS that is capable of supplying 12kW was selected. The running load was estimated to be 6.5kWatts (28Amps) for battery sizing. Once Installed, the load was monitored and the maximum RMS current drawn by the equipment above was 7.3 amps (1.68 kWatts). Power drawn was 15% of the manufacturers published data. This is an extreme case but highlights the potential for over-estimating.

  18. Sizing a Solution Total load of equipment – Load list Manufacturers rating plate will always be maximum worst case load Stated Amps is often rated at 110Vac and 50% less at 230Vac Using the manufacturers Watts (W) and Current (A) ratings may over- size the solution by up to 50% or worse Measure current – RMS and Peak Remember to only support the essential parts of the Load!

  19. Site Considerations • Physical size. Delivering and positioning – Will it go through the door? • Physical weight. Can it go up the stairs? Will it fall through the floor? • Location Access: Installation – Servicing - Security Floods, Chemicals and Gases. AC, Soil or water pipes overhead. Ventilation – Removal of heat • Regulations Fire regulations. EPO requirement? Site specific regulations Hospitals, military etc • Interface with other equipment Generators Interaction with Harmonic or PF Equipment

  20. Availability

  21. Configuration Options for Greater Resilience Single UPS – 99.99 Parallel UPS – 99.99 Parallel Redundant UPS System – 99.999 N+2 Redundant UPS System – 99.9999

  22. CRITICAL LOAD Mains Supply Bypass Switch. External Bypass Switch Single UPS with External Bypass

  23. Autonomy Question - How long should the UPS support the load? Answer - Minimum autonomy as I have a generator! WRONG! The autonomy should be as long as it takes to carry out a controlled shutdown! Answer – I want to keep going for 2, 4 or 8 hours WRONG! Temperature rise will be to great if there’s for no air-conditioning 30-45 minutes. Also consider Type of Battery - Sealed lead Acid 5 Year or 10 Year design Life Batteries are the weakest link (2 strings or more)

  24. Communications • Remote Indication – LEDs, LCD, mimics • Volt Free Contacts – BMS • Modem – Remote interrogation by phone • FCT (fixed cell terminals) for remote locations. • 24/7 Monitoring • Controlled Shutdown & Monitoring Software • RS 232 – Direct connection to server/PC • SNMP – Presence on LAN – WWW • Keep critical servers running longer (load shedding) • Real time monitoring • 24/7 Monitoring - email alert, SMS, WAP

  25. AVS or DVR Critical Load TVSS TVSS TVSS PLC / SCADA CVT Process Manufacturing DVR AMF Critical Load UPS Sub Station Data Centre Back up Generator Essential Loads Air Conditioning Non Essential Loads Canteen Combined Therapies

  26. Risk Cost Resilience Key points Resilience Power Plan Keep it simple! Evaluate the Risks (£) Calculate the Costs (£) Implementation and ownership

  27. The guide can be purchased from the Riello UPS e-store at www.uninterruptible-power-supply.co.uk or leading book retailers under ISBN code: 978-0-9554428-0-3. Published by entiveon And Finally Any Questions ? Thank you for listening