Teirra brooks . Background…. Linda Brown, an African American third grader from Topeka, Kansas,had to walk one mile every day to get to a “black school”. Even though there was a "white elementary school" only seven blocks away. . Taking it to court….
A few days later, two men kidnapped Till from his uncle’s cabin in the middle of the night. Till’s body was found three days later in the Tallahatchie River.
Roy Bryant – store owner
J.W. Milam – Brother-in-law
The courage of Till’s uncle encouraged other blacks to testify against Bryant and Milam.
“Have you ever sent a loved son on vacation and had him returned to you in a pine box so horribly battered and water-logged that someone needs to tell you this sickening sight is your son – lynched?” – Mamie Bradley
advance the cause of civil rights in
America in a non-violent way.
The historic Brown vs Board of Education case declared segregation unconstitutional in 1954. By 1957, the NAACP had registered nine black students to attend the previously all-white Little Rock Central High; however, these nine were “greeted” by 1,000 violent, white protestors.
LRCHS was the focal point of the Little Rock Integration Crisis of 1957. Nine African-American students, known as the Little Rock Nine, were denied entrance to the school in defiance of the 1954 U.S. Supreme Court ruling ordering integration of public schools.
This event, watched by the nation and world, was the site of the first important test for the implementation of the U.S. Supreme Court’s historic Brown vs Board of Education decision of 1954
The Little Rock Central High crisis is considered to be one of the most important events in the African-American Civil Rights Movement.
♫ Berry Bordy founded Motown records. He was born on November 28th, 1929 in Detroit, Michigan. He is now 82 years old.
♫ Stevie Wonder was born on May 13th, 1950 in Saginaw, Michigan. He is now 61 years old.
♫ Marvin Gaye was born on April 2nd, 1939 in Washington, DC.
♫ Debbie Dean was born on February 1st, 1928 in Corbin, Kentucky. She was Motown's first white female solo recording artist. She died on February 17th, 2001.
♫ Sondra “Blinky” Williams was born on May 21st, 1944 in Los Angeles, California. She is 67 years old today.
On February 1, 1960, four students from the North Carolina Agriculture and Technical school sat down at the lunch counter inside the Woolworth's on 132 South Elm Street in Greensboro, North Carolina.
The four asked for service and promptly denied by the lunch counter staff, as store policy only served white men at the lunch counter. The store manager asked the four to leave immediately.
The next day, more than twenty African American students who had been recruited from other campus groups came to the store to join the sit-in. White customers cursed and aggravated the black students, who read books and studied to keep busy. The lunch counter staff continued to refuse service.
Newspaper reporters and a TV Videographer covered the second day of peaceful demonstrations and others in the community learned of the protests.
On the third day, more than 60 people came to the Woolworth's store. A statement issued by Woolworth's national headquarters said the company would "abide by local custom" and maintain its segregated policy.
The fourth day, word spread and peaceful protests began at Greensboro’s Kress Store, with more than 300 protesters showing up.
The movement then spread to other Southern cities such as Richmond, VA and Nashville, Tennessee.
- Graduated from Dundley High School in 1959 and received a bachelor of science degree in sociology from N.C. A&T in 1963
- He graduated from Washington’s Eastern High School in 1959. He received a bachelor’s degree in chemistry and biology from N.C. A&T in 1964.
- A Wilmington native, he graduated from Williston Senior High. McNeil received a degree in engineering physics from A&T in 1963. His roommate was Ezell Blair Jr.
- Richmond grew up in the East White Oak community and attended Jonesboro Elementary and Lincoln Street Junior High and graduated from Dudley High School.
-At N.C. A&T, he majored in business administration and accounting but left the school three credits short of his degree.
- He opened a clothing store on East Market Street, which attracted many A&T students as customers, including the Greensboro Four. He is thought to have encouraged the students to challenge segregation and to have tipped off the press on the first day of the sit-ins at Woolworth.
- Longtime civil rights activist and Greensboro dentist, he was president of the local NAACP chapter from 1959 until 1984. In 1955, he and several other black men were arrested for trespassing after they played nine holes at the all-white, municipal Gillespie Park Golf Course.
- Former busboy at Woolworth's. Worked the day of the original sit-ins and throughout the sit-ins at Woolworth.
- Former chairman of the Greensboro Human Relations Commission and was active for 15 years in the civil rights movement.
- When she retired in 1993 from Woolworth, she was one of only two employees still working at the South Elm store who was there on Feb. 1, 1960. At the time of the sit-ins, Edwards ran the bakery counter.
- Manager of the Woolworth Store during the sit-ins.
They were women and men of different races against segregation
The group started with desegregating restaurants and movie theaters
The group traveled to the deep South in hopes of challenging the Jim Crow laws.Freedom Riders
Blacks and whites sat beside each other which was considered a crime in the South.
There were many violent attacks targeting the Freedom Riders.
The Freedom Riders were arrested and sent to Parchman Farm.Freedom Riders
This was the plan made by Martin Luther King Jr. and other Civil Rights leaders to stage sit-ins, boycotts, marches, and other demonstrations in non-violent ways.
The “C” stands for Confrontation
The demonstrations were aimed at stores that supported and implemented segregation
After their list of demands, which included the desegregation of stores and restrooms, was denied there were sit-ins held for three days.
Police used brutal force on the protesters, which included: being beat by night sticks, being attacked by vicious dogs, and being sprayed by high powered hoses.
King was arrested and was put in jail after the demonstration.
Being sprayed by high powered hoses ^
< King in the police station after he is arrested
Shapes a voice for African Americans that they will no longer “Negotiate”
Black organizations insist on taking direct action to advocate their movement (marches, sit-in strikes, parades, etc.)
March led by Martin Luther King Jr. a civil rights activist who believed in civil disobedience to protest racial inequalities of African-American’s.
Led to the Civil Rights Act of 1964
The 16th street Baptist Church was used as a meeting place for Civil Rights, by leaders such as Martin Luther King.
Tensions became high when the Southern Christian Leadership
Conference (SCLC) and the Congress on Racial Equality (CORE)
became involved in a campaign to register African Americans
to vote in Birmingham.
On Sunday, September 15, 1963 a white man placed a box under the 16th street church and at 10:22am the bomb exploded.
The bomb killed four girls and injured 23 others.
member of the Ku Klux Klan
Chambliss was arrested and charged
with murder and possession of 122
sticks of dynamite with out a permit.
Tried on October 8, 1963.
Found not guilty of murder
Was given a hundred dollar fine
and 6 month jail sentence for
students from North Carolina A&T University
refused to leave a Woolworth's lunch counter in Greensboro,
North Carolina where they had been denied service
work, organizing voter registration drives
all over the South, especially in Georgia,
Alabama, and Mississippi.
from direct-action protests against
segregation into other forms of organizing, most notably voter registration.
campaign was organized
by a coalition called the
Enacted July 2, 1964
Illegal to discriminate on the
basis of race, color, religion, sex,
and national origin.
CORE, NAACP, SNCC organized their freedom campaign- concentrated in Mississippi
Objective: to end political inequality of African Americans
Also established 30 Freedom schools- targets for white mobs
June 21, 1964: James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner were all shot dead on the way home from visiting the site of a firebombing
The FBI discovered the bodies, buried on Old Jolly Farm, on August, 1964
Sources: Spartacus.com and google images
Malcolm X was a minister of the nation of Islam. He preached about self-reliance and self-protection. He supported black pride and black nationalism. His powerful speeches led many people to follow his cause.
Black Power was an idea that African Americans needed to unite and work together for civil rights. It became a political force to either elect representatives or force their representatives to speak their needs
Original six black panthers: Elbert “Big Man” Howard, Huey P. Newton, Sherman Forte, Bobby Seale, Reggie Forte, and Little Bobby Hutton
April 25th, 1967-the first issue of The Black Panther, the party’s official news organ, goes into distribution
I pledge allegiance to my Black People.I pledge to develop my mind and body to the greatest extent possible.I will learn all that I can in order to give my best to my People in their struggle for liberation.I will keep myself physically fit, building a strong body free from drugs and other substances which weaken me and make me less capable of protecting myself, my family and my Black brothers and sisters.I will unselfishly share my knowledge and understanding with them in order to bring about change more quickly.I will discipline myself to direct my energies thoughtfully and constructively rather than wasting them in idle hatred.I will train myself never to hurt or allow others to harm my Black brothers and sisters for I recognize that we need every Black Man, Woman, and Child to be physically, mentally and psychologically strong.These principles I pledge to practice daily and to teach them to others in order to unite my People.
ever been re-elected in the Senate
King was shot on April 4, 1968, standing on the balcony in front of his hotel room at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee.
The FBI arrested James Earl Ray
However, many people including some of King’s own family believed him to be innocent.
They believed the FBI to be partially if not fully responsible for his death.
Ray was captured on June 8, and
Sentenced to 99 years in prison.