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Section 1: Characteristics of Animals

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  1. Chapter 27: Introduction to Animals Section 1: Characteristics of Animals

  2. General Features of Animals • Heterotrophy • Animals are heterotrophs– that is, they can not make their own food. • Most animals move from place to place searching for food. • Once food is located, it is eaten and then digested in a cavity inside the animal’s body.

  3. General Features of Animals • Mobility • Animals are unique among living things in being able to perform rapid, complex movements. • Animals move by means of muscle cells, specialized cells that are able to contract with considerable force.

  4. General Features of Animals • Animals can swim, crawl, walk, run, and even fly. In fact, flight has evolved four times among animals , in insects, pterosaurs, birds and bats.

  5. General features of Animals • Multicellularity • All animals are multicellular. • In spite of differences in body size, there is little difference in the size of most cells that make up these animals

  6. General Features of Animals • The cells on the skin of your hand are roughly the same size as the cells in the heart of a whale or in the wing of a hummingbird.

  7. General Features of Animals • Diploidy • With few exceptions, animals are diploid, meaning adults have two copies of each chromosome, one inherited from their father and one from their mother.

  8. General Features of Animals • Only their gametes (egg and sperm) are haploid. • A great advantage of diploidy is that it permits an animal to exchange genes between the two copies of a set of chromosomes, creating new combinations of genes.

  9. General Features of Animals • Sexual Reproduction • Almost all animals reproduce sexually by producing gametes, as do many plants, fungi, and protists. • The females’ egg cells are much larger than the males’ sperm cells. • Unlike the egg cells, the sperm cells of animals have a flagella and are highly mobile.

  10. General Features of Animals • Absence of a Cell Wall • Among the cells of multicellular organisms, only animal cell lack rigid cell walls.

  11. General Features of Animals • The absence of a rigid cell wall has allowed animals mobility that other multicellular organisms do not have. • You may not realize this, but there are cells moving in your body at all time. • Cells called macrophages, for example, act as mobile garbage collectors, crawling over tissues and removing debris.

  12. General Features of Animals • Blastula Formation • In all animals except sponges, the zygote (fertilized egg cell) undergoes cell division that form a hollow ball of cells called a blastula.

  13. General Features of Animals • Cells within the blastula eventually develop into three distinct layers of cells – ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. • These layers are called the primary tissue layers because they give rise to all of the tissues and organs of the adult body.

  14. Origin of Animal Tissues and Organs

  15. Gastrulation

  16. General Features of Animals • Tissues • The cells of all animals except sponges are organized into structural and functional units called tissues. • Tissues are group of cells with a common structure that works together to perform a specific function NO tissues

  17. Body Symmetry • All animals have their own particular body plan, a term used to describe an animal’s shape, symmetry, and internal organization. • An animal’s body plan results from a pattern of development programmed into the animal’s genes by natural selection

  18. Body Symmetry • Sponges have the simplest body plan of all animals. • Sponges are asymmetrical – irregular in shape and sometimes their shape depends on where they are growing.

  19. Body Symmetry • Animals with radial symmetry have body parts arranged around a central axis – like the spokes on a wheel. • Most are aquatic organisms.

  20. Body Symmetry • The bodies of all other animals show bilateral symmetry – body design with distinct right and left halves that are mirror images.

  21. Body Symmetry • Most bilaterally symmetrical animals have evolved an anterior concentration of sensory structures and nerves, a process called cephalization. Anterior

  22. Internal Body Cavity • Bilaterally symmetrical animals have one of three basic kinds of internal body plans: • Coelomates: body plan that includes a body cavity – a fluid filled space found between the body wall and the digestive tract.

  23. Internal Body Cavity • Acoelomates – animals with no body cavity.

  24. Internal Body Cavity • Pseudocoelomates – Animals that have a body cavity located between the mesoderm and endoderm.

  25. 3 Types of Body Plans

  26. Body Segmentation • Segmented animals are composed of a series of repeating, similar units called segments. • Segmentation underlies the organization of all advanced animals and is easy to observe in some animals, such as ants and earthworms. Thorax Head Abdomen

  27. Body Segmentation • In vertebrates, segments are not visible externally, but there is evidence of segmentation in a vertebrate embryo. Head Thorax Abdomen

  28. Kinds of Animals • Kingdom Animalia contains about 35 major divisions called phyla depending on how certain organisms are classified.

  29. Kinds of Animals • To visually represent the relationships among various groups of animals, scientists often use a type of branching diagram called a phylogenetic tree. • A phylogenetic tree shows how animals are related through evolution.

  30. Two Groups of Animals • The animal kingdom is divided into two groups of organisms: • Vertebrates – animals with backbones – humans, dogs, sharks • Invertebrates – animals without backbones – slugs, spiders, jellyfish