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Chapter 4. Physical Activity for Life. Lesson 1. Physical Activity and Your Health. What is Physical Activity?. Physical Activity: any form of movement that causes your body to use energy Purposeful ways….examples???

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Chapter 4

Chapter 4

Physical Activity for Life

Lesson 1

Lesson 1

Physical Activity and Your Health

What is physical activity
What is Physical Activity?

  • Physical Activity: any form of movement that causes your body to use energy

    • Purposeful ways….examples???

  • Physical Fitness: the ability to carry out daily tasks easily and have enough reserve energy to respond to unexpected demands

    • Lifelong goal, total sense of well-being

What are the benefits to physical activity
What are the Benefits to Physical Activity

  • Provides health benefits that last a lifetime

  • Helps strengthen not only the physical but also the mental/emotional and social sides of your heath triangle

  • Discussion: Weight lifter who works out at a gym 5 times a week. Is this individual fit?

Benefits to physical health
Benefits to Physical Health

  • Makes your body stronger, increases your energy and improves your posture

  • Reduce chronic fatigue and stiffness and can improve your motor responses

  • Helps strengthens muscles and bones which helps reduce the risk of many serious diseases

Benefits to physical health cont
Benefits to Physical Health cont.,

  • Regular physical activity also contributes to the functioning of many body systems:

    • Cardiovascular System

    • Respiratory System

    • Nervous System

Benefits to mental emotional health
Benefits to Mental/Emotional Health

  • Help reduce stress

  • Stretching helps to relax tense muscles (before going to sleep especially)

  • Allows you to manage anger or frustration in a healthy way

  • How is this possible??? Stimulates the release of certain chemicals that affect the brain, which helps your mood and decreases the risk of depression

Benefits to mental emotional health cont
Benefits to Mental/Emotional Health cont.,

  • Helping you look and feel better, which can increase your self-confidence

  • Contributing to a positive self-concept by giving you a sense of pride and accomplishment in taking care of yourself

  • Reducing mental fatigue by bringing more oxygen to the brain. This improves your concentration, allowing you to think clearly and work more productively

  • Giving you a “can do” spirit when faced with new challenges

Benefits to social health
Benefits to Social Health

  • Building self-confidence, which helps you cope better in social situations, such as when you meet new people

  • Giving you the opportunity to interact and cooperate with others

  • Helping you manage stress, which can enhance your relationships with others

Journal 5 character check
Journal 5 – Character Check

  • Responsibility

    • When you participate in regular physical activity, you take responsibility for your health. By taking care of yourself, you are saying that you are worth investing in. Be positive about the benefits these activities bring you, and don’t forget to compliment yourself: “I like how I feel, and I like how I look!”

    • Write 3 other positive statements that reflect the benefits you receive from regular physical activity

Risks of physical inactivity
Risks of Physical Inactivity

  • CDC’s troubling facts about the level of physical activity among U.S. high school students

    • More than one in three teens do not participate in regular vigorous activity

    • Regular participation in vigorous physical activity declines significantly during teen years, 73% of 9th graders to 61% of 12th graders

    • Only 29% of teens attend a daily physical education class, a serious decline from 42% in 1991

      • WHY???

Risk of physical inactivity cont
Risk of Physical Inactivity, cont.

  • Sedentary Lifestyle – a way of life that involves little physical activity

    • Negative effects of a sedentary lifestyle include:

      • Unhealthy weight gain, which can lead to cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and cancer.

      • Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among Americans

      • Diabetes is a serious disorder that prevents the body from converting food into energy

      • Increased risk of osteoporosis, a condition characterized by a decrease in bone density, producing porous and fragile bones

      • Reduced ability to manage stress

      • Decrease opportunities to meet and form friendships with active people who value and live a healthy lifestyle

Physical activity and weight control
Physical Activity and Weight Control

  • 15. 7% of children have weight problems

  • 7% of children are obese

  • 70% of children with a weight problem will be overweight adults

  • 62% of adults have a weight problem

  • 25% of adults are obese

  • 30% of adults are over normal weight

  • 35% of adults morbid obese

  • 25%-30% of adults are considered overweight

Physical activity and weight control cont
Physical Activity and Weight Control, cont.

  • Develop good eating habits and be physically active on a regular basis

  • Figure 4.1 in text, page 78

  • Metabolism – is the process by which your body gets energy from food

    • Your body needs a sufficient number of calories each day to function properly

    • Physical activity to burn off the extra calories or they are stored as fat

    • When you are physically active your metabolism rises and your body burns more calories than when it is at rest

    • You can continue to burn more calories several hours after you ended your activity

Fitting physical activity into your life
Fitting Physical Activity into Your Life

  • Recommended you get 60 minutes most days of the week

  • Any activity is good activity

  • Choose things you like and enjoy

  • It does not have to be 60 straight minutes

Lesson 2

Lesson 2

Fitness and You

Elements of fitness
Elements of Fitness

  • Cardiorespiratory Endurance

    • the ability of the heart, lungs and blood vessels to utilize and send fuel and oxygen to the body’s tissues during long periods of moderate to vigorous activity

    • Cardiovascular disease is the number 1 cause of death in the United States


Elements of fitness1
Elements of Fitness

  • Muscle Strength

    • the amount of force a muscle can exert


Elements of fitness2
Elements of Fitness

  • Muscle Endurance

    • the ability of the muscles to perform physical tasks over a period of time without becoming fatigued


Elements of fitness3
Elements of Fitness

  • Flexibility

    • the ability to move a body part through a full range of motion


Elements of fitness4
Elements of Fitness

  • Body Composition

    • the ratio of body fat to lean body tissue, including muscle, bone, water and connective tissue such as ligaments, cartilage and tendons


Elements of fitness5
Elements of Fitness

  • Exercise

    • purposeful physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive and that improves or maintains personal fitness

Measuring cadiorespiratory endurance
Measuring Cadiorespiratory Endurance

  • Mile run

  • PACER Test

  • 3 minute step test

Measuring muscular strength and endurance
Measuring Muscular Strength and Endurance

  • Gives you the necessary power to carry out your daily tasks without becoming fatigued

  • Usually have better posture and less back problems

    • Curl ups: abdominals

    • Arm hang: upper body

    • Squats: lower body

Measuring flexibility
Measuring Flexibility

  • Increase your athletic performance, help you feel more comfortable, reduce the risk of muscle strains and other injuries, prevent lower back problems

    • Sit – and – Reach

Measuring body composition
Measuring Body Composition

  • Be physically active and eat healthy to avoid being overweight

  • You should have an idea of your body composition

  • Women: 18% and 22% - Body Fat

    • Skin fold test: “pinch test”

    • Hydrostatic or Hydrodensitometry

    • DEXA (Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry)

Improving your fitness
Improving Your Fitness

  • Two Categories:

  • 1. Aerobic Exercise

  • 2. Anaerobic Exercise

  • Aerobic exercise is any activity that uses large muscle groups, is rhythmic in nature and can be maintained continuously for at least 10 minutes three times a day or for 20 to 30 minutes at one time

  • Anaerobic exercise involves short bursts of activity in which the muscles work so hard that they produce energy without using energy

  • Examples of both???

Targeting cardiovascular fitness
Targeting Cardiovascular Fitness

  • 1. sit quietly for five minutes, and then take your pulse. This is your resting heart rate (RHR)

  • 2. subtract your age from 220 to find your maximum heart rate (MHR)

  • 3. Subtract your resting heart rate from your maximum heart rate

  • 4. Multiply the number you arrived at in Step 3 by 60% and again by 85%. Round to the nearest whole numbers

  • 5. Add your resting heart rate to the numbers you arrived at in step 4. The resulting totals represent your target heart range

Target heart rate
Target Heart Rate

  • 1. RHR = 66 beats per minute

  • 2. MHR = 220 – 18 = 202

  • 3. 202 – 66 = 136

  • 4. 136 x 60% = 82, 136 x 80% = 109

  • 5. 82 + 66 = 148, 109 + 66 = 175

  • Target Heart Range is between 148 and 175

Improving cardiorespiratory endurance
Improving Cardiorespiratory Endurance

  • Aerobic exercises helps to increase your heart rate which sends more oxygen to your muscles to use as energy

  • Over time this strengthens your heart muscle, allowing it to pump more blood efficiently

  • Increases your lung’s capacity to hold air

Improving muscular strength and endurance
Improving Muscular Strength and Endurance

  • Anaerobic exercises improve muscular strength and endurance

  • Sprinting, resistance training or strength training are forms of anaerobic exercise

  • Resistance training, which builds muscles by requiring them to move in opposition to a force; free weights, exercise machines or your own body weight

  • Helps the body keep blood sugar levels normal and help maintain healthy cholesterol levels

  • Three types of resistance training, Isometric, Isotonic, and Isokinetic

Three types of resistance training
Three Types of Resistance Training

  • Isometric Exercise – an activity that uses muscle tension to improve muscular strength with little or no movement of the body part

    • Example: pushing against a wall or any other immovable object

  • Isotonic Exercise – an activity that combines muscle contraction and repeated movement

    • Doing calisthenics, push-ups, pull-ups, sit-ups; using a row machine

  • Isokinetic Exercise – an activity in which a resistance is moved through an entire range of motion at a controlled rate of speed

    • Using a stationary bike or treadmill designed to control resistance and speed

Improving flexibility
Improving Flexibility

  • You have good flexibility when you can easily bend, turn, and stretch your body

  • You can improve your flexibility through regular stretching exercises

  • Best time to increase your flexibility is when your core temperature has been raised

  • Do not hold stretches for longer than 10-15 seconds

  • Different types of stretching: Ballistic, Dynamic, Active, Passive, Static, Isometric, PNF (see handout)

Improving and maintaining bone strength
Improving and Maintaining Bone Strength

  • Decisions you make concerning physical activity and nutrition can affect the health of your skeletal system now and later in life

  • Calcium helps our bones as well as resistance training and weight bearing aerobic activities – those that force you to work against gravity, such as walking and stair climbing

  • During your teen years it is the last chance to build bone mass because during a person’s late 20s and early 30s bone mass and density starts to decline which leads to osteoporosis

Lesson 3

Lesson 3

Planning a Personal

Activity Program

Journal 6 hw
Journal 6 – HW

  • Sedentary Lifestyle

    • Daily log (7 days of logging)

    • Part 1: Calculate all sedentary activity you do and explain what it is and how long you do it for

    • Part 2: What can you do to replace it?

    • This is a journal entry as well as a homework grade. It is to be written in your journals as well a typed copy to be handed in to me 8 days from now!

Setting physical activity goals
Setting Physical Activity Goals

  • Set realistic fitness goals

  • Develop a plan to meet your goals

  • This may include all sorts of activities like…

  • Getting Started: Figure 4.3

    • Physical Activity Pyramid

      • Moderate-Intensity Physical Activity – bottom = most amount

      • Aerobic Activities

      • Anaerobic Activities

      • Flexibility Activities

      • Sedentary Activities – top = least amount

Choosing activities
Choosing Activities

  • Including different types of physical activities in your fitness program can make it more enjoyable

  • Always alter your program, cross training

  • Factors that may affect your activity choices are:

    • Cost

    • Where you live

    • Your level of health, asthma – a disease of the respiratory system

    • Time and place

    • Personal safety

    • Comprehensive planning

Basics of a physical activity program
Basics of a Physical Activity Program


    • S = Specificity

    • P = Progression

    • O = Overload

    • R = Reversibility

    • T = Train and Maintain

S port

  • Specificity – particular exercises and activities improve particular areas of health-related fitness

  • Only the muscles or body systems being worked benefit from the exercise

  • Exercise the specific muscles you want to improve

  • Example: to improve your 1 mile run, you need to run 2 to 3 miles to increase your cardiovascular endurance and your muscular endurance

S p ort

  • Progression – the gradual increase in overload necessary to achieve higher levels

  • As an activity becomes easier you want to increase the number of repetitions or sets or the time spent doing the activity

  • 10% Rule: increase reps, sets or time by 10 percent

    • Example: if you jog 10 minutes a day 4 days a week, the next week you should jog 11 minutes a day 4 times a week

Sp o rt

  • Overload – to improve any component of fitness the body must work above the normal level

  • Increase intensity, duration or frequency

  • Slowly adding to the workload in a safe and comfortable manner

Spo r t

  • Reversibility – use it or lose it

  • Cannot store the benefits of fitness

  • Lifetime commitment

  • You need to maintain it!

Spor t

  • Train and Maintain

  • Do it for a lifetime

  • Set short and long-term goals

  • Apply exercise principles

The 3 phases of a workout
The 3 Phases of a Workout

  • Warm-Up

  • Main Event (workout)

  • Cool Down

Phase 1 warm up
Phase 1 – Warm-Up

  • Warm-up: an activity that prepares the muscles for work, it is the first stage in any physical activity routine

  • Point is to raise your body’s temperature

  • At the end of the warm-up you want to stretch the large muscle groups, holding no longer than 10-15 seconds

Phase 2 the main event
Phase 2 – The Main Event

  • The Main Event or Workout – is the part of an exercise program when the activity is performed at its highest peak

  • The workout needs to follow the FITT formula

    • F – Frequency: how often

    • I – Intensity: how hard you work

    • T – Time: duration of the workout

    • T- Type: which activities

Phase 3 the cool down
Phase 3 – The Cool Down

  • The cool down – is an activity that prepares the muscles to return to a resting state

  • Should last about 5 minutes

  • Stretch at the end of the cool down

Monitoring your progress
Monitoring Your Progress

  • Keep a fitness journal

    • Goals, note FITT, SPORT

    • Compare and Evaluate

  • Resting Heart Rate

    • The number of times your heart beats in one minute when you are not active

    • A person of average fitness has a resting heart rate of about 72 to 84 beats per minute

    • Just 4 weeks of fitness can increase your RHR 5 to 10 percent

    • RHR below 72 indicates a good fitness level

Lesson 4

Lesson 4

Training and Safety

for Physical Activities

Journal 7
Journal 7

  • List reasons why you exercise


  • List reasons why you do NOT exercise


Training and peak performance
Training and Peak Performance

  • Training Program – is a program of formalized physical preparation for involvement in a sport or another physical activity

  • Also included: nutritious foods, drinking plenty of fluids, getting adequate rest, avoiding harmful substances

Training and peak performance cont
Training and Peak Performance, cont.

  • Nutrition and Hydration

    • Hydration: taking in fluids so that the body functions properly

    • Adequately hydrated and fed, you are more energetic, focused and alert

  • Adequate Rest

    • Helps your body rest and reenergize, teens need on average 8 to 10 hours of sleep each night

  • Avoiding Harmful Substances

    • Such as tobacco, alcohol, anabolic steroids and other drugs

Anabolic steroids and nutritional supplements
Anabolic Steroids and Nutritional Supplements

  • Anabolic Steroids

    • Synthetic substances that are similar to the male hormone testosterone

    • Cause the body to make muscle

    • Very harmful effects: risk of cancer, heart disease, inability to produce children, skin problems (acne), loss of hair, unusual weight gain or loss, sexual underdevelopment and dysfunction, violent suicidal, or depressive tendencies

    • Illegal to use without a prescription

  • Nutritional Supplements

    • Nonfood substances that contain one or more nutrients that the body needs such as vitamins or minerals

    • Best way to get nutrients is from food, however a multivitamin and mineral supplement may be appropriate

    • Megadoses can be harmful

Safety first
Safety First

  • You can reduce your risk of injury by:

    • Health screening: a search or check for disease or disorders that an individual would otherwise not have knowledge of or seek help for

    • Using proper safety equipment for the chosen activity

    • Being alert to the surrounding environment, including players and spectators

    • Playing at your skill level and knowing your physical limits

    • Warming up before and cooling down after every activity

    • Staying within areas that have been designated for physical activities

    • Obeying all rules and restrictions

    • Practicing good sporting behavior

Personal safety and using proper equipment
Personal Safety and Using Proper Equipment

  • Select the right time and place for your activity

    • If you work out alone, choose a well-used area in day light

    • If you can’t avoid nighttime physical activity, wear reflective gear, wear a whistle

    • Be aware of the weather

  • Learn to use the equipment involved before doing the activity

    • Wear the recommended safety gear

    • Make sure it fits and is in good condition

    • Proper footwear and clothing are important

Lesson 5

Lesson 5

Physical Activity Injuries

Weather related risks
Weather-Related Risks

  • Taking your physical activities outdoors can be a great change of pace, but some weather-related health problems need to be taken into consideration

  • Factors such as extremely low or high temperatures, wind, humidity, and air pollution

  • Be aware of wind chill factors, ultraviolet indexes, air quality alerts, and weather warnings

Hot weather health risks
Hot-Weather Health Risks

  • Two concerns during hot weather are dehydration or excessive loss of water from the body, and poor air quality

  • Overexertion – overworking the body

    • Heat exhaustion: an overheating of the body that results in cold, clammy skin and symptoms of shock, dizziness, headache, shortness of breath and nausea, along with heat cramps

  • Heat Cramps – muscle spasms that result from a loss of large amounts of salt and water through perspiration

    • Move to a cool place and lie down with feet elevated, small sips of water to recover, if not medical attention is needed

  • Heat Stroke – a condition in which the body loses the ability to rid itself of excessive heat through perspiration

    • If occurs call for help immediately, then move to cool place and spnge with cold water until help arrives

Cold weather health risks
Cold-Weather Health Risks

  • Frostbite: a condition that results when body tissues become frozen, requires medical treatment

    • Early warning sign, frostnip, whitening of the skin of the toes, fingers, nose and ears

  • Hypothermia: a condition in which body temperature becomes dangerously low

    • The body loses the ability to warm itself up, wind, rain or water submersion

    • Can lead to death, it requires immediate medical attention

    • Things to do:

    • Dress in three layers to keep warm

    • First layer should pull moisture and perspiration away from your body

    • Middle layer should provide insulation

    • Top layer should be a wind and water repellant

    • Wear a hat, 70% of the body’s heat is lost through the head

Protecting yourself from sun and wind
Protecting Yourself from Sun and Wind

  • Prolonged exposure to sun and wind is another weather-related risk of outdoor activity

  • Windburn occurs when skin is exposed to freezing wind, causing it to become red, tight, and sore to the touch

    • Reduce the risk of windburn by wearing protective clothing and using lip balm

  • The sun’s UV rays may cause sunburn, a burning of the outer layers of the skin

    • Mild sunburn makes your skin red and slightly sore

    • Sever sunburn causes blistering of the skin, swelling and pain

Skin cancer
Skin Cancer

  • Repeated or prolonged exposure to the sun speeds the skin’s aging process and increases your risk of developing skin cancer, as well as eye damage

    • Cataract: cloudy covering over the lends of the eye

  • The most dangerous hours for UV exposure are from 10 AM to 4 PM

  • To protect yourself against sunburn:

    • Cover the body with clothing

    • Use sunscreen and lip balm

    • Apply sunscreen every 30 minutes

Minor injuries
Minor Injuries

  • Sore muscles: muscles are often sore 24 to 48 hours after a strenuous workout

    • Prevention: warming up, cooling down and stretching

  • Muscle cramp: a spasm or sudden tightening of a muscle, happens when a muscle is tired, overworked or dehydrated

  • Strain: a condition resulting from damaging a muscle or tendon

  • Sprain: an injury to the ligament surrounding a joint

    • Symptoms: pain, swelling, and difficulty moving

The r i c e procedure
The R.I.C.E. Procedure

  • R: Rest – avoid using the affected muscle or joint

  • I: Ice – ice helps reduce pain and swelling. Ice affected area 20 minutes on and 20 minutes off, 20 minutes on and repeat every three waking hours

  • C: Compression – light pressure through the use of an elastic bandage can help reduce swelling, should not cut off blood circulation to the area, should be loosened at night

  • E: Elevation – raising the affected limb above the level of the heart helps reduce pain and swelling

Major injuries
Major Injuries

  • Fracture and Dislocations

    • Fracture is any break in a bone, causes swelling and often extreme pain

    • Dislocations result when a bone is forced from its normal position at a joint

  • Tendonitis

    • A condition in which the tendons, bands of fiber that connect the muscles to bones, are stretched or torn from overuse

  • Concussions

    • Result from blows to the head and can cause swelling of the brain, resulting in unconsciousness or even death