Energy Outlook forNew Hampshire: 2050 Sara Krueger SMGT 320 December 16, 2011
Introduction • In the time that has passed since New Hampshire was part of the former United States, many things have changed for New Hampshire. • Forethought into increased sustainability helped pave the way for toward energy independence. • Example: By 2025, at least 25% of electricity generated from renewable resources.
Overview New Hampshire Population in 2050 • 1,810,013 people (FAIR, 2006) Consumption 2050 • 25,000 million kWh Consumption Annual Growth Rate • 2% until 2025 • After 2025: Annual growth rate steady at 1.5%
How did NH reduce their rate energy consumption? • Improved insulation of buildings to reduce heat loss • More efficient appliances in residential, commercial, and industrial settings • Increased awareness of energy conservation efforts • School programs focusing on educating children to be the stimulus for change in their families
Renewable Energy Generation • Amount of Energy from Renewable Sources (2050) • 1850 Million kWh • Sources of Renewable Energy (Public Utilities) • Hydroelectric • 21 Dams (all built during statehood) • Operate at 90% efficiency • 110 MW • Wind • 4 Wind Farms including Lempster Mountain and Granite Peak • 246 MW
New Hampshire Wind Maps: 50m and 80 m Source: Wind Powering America
Overview • Public utilities are not a major focus • Focus on small scale sustainability • Individual buildings equipped with renewable sources of energy • Solar panels • Geothermal heating/cooling • Rooftop vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) • Methane produced by Anaerobic Digestion • Micro grids
Strategy • Replace electricity generated by Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant by 2050 decommission with renewable energy sources. • Seabrook provided 45% of NH electricity needs • New Construction regulations • Incentive to install or update renewable energy sources • Micro grids • Changes in transportation fuel • 75% vehicles all-electric • 25% fueled by biofuel produced in NH
In the next section… • New Hampshire’s Energy choices • Geothermal • Wind Power • Solar • Biofuels • Natural Gas • Advantages and Disadvantages
Geothermal • Advantages • reliable heating/cooling • Not dependent on fuel prices • Reduction in CO2 emissions • Disadvantages • High initial cost Source: Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology
Wind Power HAWT VAWT Advantages Accessibility for maintenance Slow speeds reduce wear and tear Add to building energy independence Less harmful to wildlife Moving artwork Disadvantages Difficult to transport Difficult to manufacture • Advantages • Generate significant electricity • Create revenue by selling to VT • Low Carbon Dioxide Emissions • Disadvantages • Difficult to maintain • Wildlife collision concerns • Aesthetics
Solar • Advantages • No pollution emitted • Takes up little space-can be placed on rooftops • Passive solar heating cost nothing • Disadvantages • High initial cost • Weather disruptions
Biofuel-Algae • Advantages • Algae can be grown in concert with wastewater treatment plans saving energy by allowing the algae to breakdown solids. • 15 times more oil produced per acre than corn and soybeans • Algae can be used to absorb carbon dioxide from industrial sources • Disadvantages • Possible escape of modified algae • NH does not use modified algae unless it is sterile
Backup Fuels: Natural Gas and Biomass Natural Gas Biomass Advantages Renewable resource Readily available Existing technology already in place Disadvantages Releases Carbon Dioxide Labor intensive • Advantages • Cleaner fossil fuel • Easy to transport and store • Regional supply • Disadvantages • Non-Renewable Resource • Volatility of fuel prices • No natural gas reserves in NH
Sustainability Outlook • How sustainable is New Hampshire’s approach for energy independence? • We have taken steps to create a very sustainable system with the primary focus and responsibility on the very small scale. The goal has been to have most homes and businesses generate more energy than they consume by renewable resources so that the excess could be sold to the grid to provide for others who many not yet have the ability to generate their own electricity. We have worked diligently to reduce consumption. • So far we have met most of our goals.