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Classification

Classification

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Classification

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  1. Classification Chapter 18

  2. Taxonomy • The science of naming and classifying living things.

  3. Common Names • Pre-1700 common names were used to identify organisms. • Long • Variable

  4. Aristotle • Grouped all organisms into two groups: • Plants and animals • Not everyone fit

  5. Binomial Nomenclature • 1700’s – Carolus Linnaeus • Devised a two-name system of naming • Genus, species

  6. Felisdomesticus

  7. Canisfamiliaris

  8. Canis lupus

  9. Homo sapiens

  10. Classification Groups • Linnaeus created 7 groups from the largest Kingdom to the smallest Species.

  11. Flowchart Section 18-1 Linnaeus’s System of Classification Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species

  12. Figure 18-5 Classification of Ursus arctos Section 18-1 Coral snake Abert squirrel Sea star Grizzly bear Black bear Giant panda Red fox KINGDOM Animalia PHYLUM Chordata CLASS Mammalia ORDER Carnivora FAMILY Ursidae GENUS Ursus SPECIES Ursus arctos

  13. Kingdoms • 1700’s – plant & animal • Late 1800’s – protist, plant, animal • 1950’s – monera, protist, fungi, plant, animal • 1990’s – eubacteria, archaebacteria, protist, fungi, plant, animal • Today - More divisions: • 3 Domains are divided into 6 kingdoms

  14. Figure 18-12 Key Characteristics of Kingdoms and Domains Section 18-3 Classification of Living Things DOMAIN KINGDOM CELL TYPE CELL STRUCTURES NUMBER OF CELLS MODE OF NUTRITION EXAMPLES Bacteria Eubacteria Prokaryote Cell walls with peptidoglycan Unicellular Autotroph or heterotroph Streptococcus, Escherichia coli Archaea Archaebacteria Prokaryote Cell walls without peptidoglycan Unicellular Autotroph or heterotroph Methanogens, halophiles Protista Eukaryote Cell walls of cellulose in some; some have chloroplasts Most unicellular; some colonial; some multicellular Autotrophor heterotroph Amoeba, Paramecium, slime molds, giant kelp Fungi Eukaryote Cell walls of chitin Most multicellular; some unicellular Heterotroph Mushrooms, yeasts Eukarya Plantae Eukaryote Cell walls of cellulose; chloroplasts Multicellular Autotroph Mosses, ferns, flowering plants Animalia Eukaryote No cell walls or chloroplasts Multicellular Heterotroph sponges, worms, fishes, mammals

  15. Modern Classification System • Based on evolutionary relationships, not just visual similarities. • Cladograms (phylogenic trees)

  16. Traditional Classification Versus Cladogram Section 18-2 Appendages Conical Shells Crustaceans Gastropod Crab Crab Limpet Limpet Barnacle Barnacle Molted exoskeleton Segmentation Tiny free-swimming larva CLASSIFICATION BASED ON VISIBLE SIMILARITIES CLADOGRAM

  17. Traditional Classification Versus Cladogram Section 18-2 Appendages Conical Shells Crustaceans Gastropod Crab Crab Limpet Limpet Barnacle Barnacle Molted exoskeleton Segmentation Tiny free-swimming larva CLASSIFICATION BASED ON VISIBLE SIMILARITIES CLADOGRAM