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CLASSIFICATION. Why Classification? * study the diversity of life. * group and name organisms in a logical manner. Taxonomy : science of classifying living things using scientific names. Early Classification. Aristotle: 350 B.C.

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Presentation Transcript
  • Why Classification?

* study the diversity of life.

* group and name organisms in a logical


Taxonomy: science of classifying living things using scientific names.

early classification
Early Classification
  • Aristotle: 350 B.C.

* Greek philosopher who classified organisms into two kingdoms: Plants or Animals

Plants: size and structures

Animals: behavior and habitat

* What might be some problems with his system????

Linneaus: Mid 1700s: developed a new

classification system

  • His system grouped organisms based on morphology (physical appearance)
  • Created 7 taxonomic levels
linnaeus taxonomic levels
Linnaeus’ Taxonomic levels
  • 8 taxonomic levels (taxon=category) :

Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species

Phrase to remember order of levels:

Dear, King Phil Came Over From Germany


8 taxonomic levels can be compared to our address system
8 Taxonomic levelsCan be compared to our address system
  • Domain (broadest)------ Continent
  • Kingdom ------------------ Country
  • Phylum -------------------- State
  • Class----------------------- County
  • Order -------------------- Town
  • Family -------------------- Neighborhood
  • Genus -------------------- Street
  • Species (most specific)- House #
what is a species
What is a Species?
  • Group of similar organisms that reproduce NATURALLY and create FERTILE offspring
binomial nomenclature scientific names
Binomial NomenclatureScientific Names

Scientists avoid using common names to prevent confusion because they vary from region to region.

Eastern Blue JayWestern Blue Jay


binomial nomenclature scientific names1
Binomial NomenclatureScientific Names
  • 2 part naming system that consists of genus and species.

Rules for writing scientific names

Genus: first word - first letter capitalized

Species: second word - lowercase

Both are underlined or italicized

EX: Homo sapiens : Human beings

Sialia sialis: Eastern Bluebird

modern classification
Modern Classification
  • Problems with traditional system: focused only on morphology (appearance)
  • Modern Criteria for Classification uses:



*DNA Comparison- DNA sequences

*Evolutionary descent

evolutionary classification
Evolutionary Classification
  • Cladistics: the science of grouping organisms based on evolutionary descent, not just morphology.
  • Cladogram: a diagram that shows evolutionary relationships among organisms.
  • Derived character: characteristic that appears in recent parts of a lineage, but not in the older members. Used to build cladograms.