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Classification. Why Do Scientists Classify?. KEY CONCEPT: Biologists use classification to organize living things into groups so that the organisms are easier to study. Classification is grouping things together based on their similarities.

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Presentation Transcript
why do scientists classify
Why Do Scientists Classify?

KEY CONCEPT: Biologists use classification to organize living things into groups so that the organisms are easier to study.

  • Classification is grouping things together based on their similarities.
  • Taxonomy is the study of classification, or how living things are grouped.
the naming system of linnaeus
The Naming System of Linnaeus

KEY CONCEPT: Carolus Linnaeus devised a system of naming organisms in which each organism has a unique, 2 part scientific name.

  • The first part of the name is the Genus. It is always capitalized.
  • The second part of the name is the Species. It is always in lower case letters.
  • Ex.- Felis domesticus
levels of classification
KEY CONCEPT: The more classification levels that two organisms share, the more characteristics they have in common.

A series of 8 levels of classification are used.

The largest group of the most varied organisms is the Domain.

The smallest, and most specific group is a Species.

Only two of the same species may mate and produce fertile offspring.

Levels of Classification
domains and kingdoms
Domains and Kingdoms

KEY CONCEPT: Organisms are placed into Domains and Kingdoms based on their cell type, ability to make food, and the number of cells in their bodies.

  • The 3 Domains are Bacteria, Archae, and Eukarya.
  • Bacteria are Prokaryotes, have no nucleus, and are unicellular, some are autotrophs, some are heterotrophs.
  • Archae are unicellular, are found in hot springs, are prokaryotes, and either autotrophs or heterotrophs.
  • Bacteria and Archae differ in their chemical make-up.
domain eukarya
Domain Eukarya

KEY CONCEPT: The domain Eukarya can be further divided into 4 Kingdoms; Protista, Fungi, Plant, Animal.

  • All members of Eukarya have cells that contain nuclei.
  • Protists are unicellular.
  • Fungi are multicellular, heterotrophic (decomposers). Ex.- molds, yeast, fungus, mushrooms.
  • Plants are multicellular, autotrophic.
  • Animals are multicellular, heterotrophic.
5 major kingdoms
Monera

Protista

Fungi

Planta

Animalia

Unicellular, prokaryotes, Bacteria

Unicellular, eukaryotes & algae

Multicellular, absorptive feeders, decomposers

Muticellular, autotrophs

Muticellular, heterotrophs

5 Major Kingdoms:
scientific name
Scientific Name:
  • Latin
  • Italics or underlined
  • Genus species
  • Homo sapien
family or genus relations
Family:

Less closely related

Larger group

Genus:

More closely related

Precedes species=

interbreeding

Family:Felidae

Lions, tigers, leopards

house cats,cheetahs, ocelots

Genus: Panthera

Leopards (pardus)

Lion (leo)

Tigers (tigris)

Family or Genus Relations?
classification by characteristics
Fossil Skulls

DNA Sequences

Hair Samples

Pictures

Classification by characteristics:

Most Useful

Least