Why Do Scientists Classify? KEY CONCEPT: Biologists use classification to organize living things into groups so that the organisms are easier to study. • Classification is grouping things together based on their similarities. • Taxonomy is the study of classification, or how living things are grouped.
The Naming System of Linnaeus KEY CONCEPT: Carolus Linnaeus devised a system of naming organisms in which each organism has a unique, 2 part scientific name. • The first part of the name is the Genus. It is always capitalized. • The second part of the name is the Species. It is always in lower case letters. • Ex.- Felis domesticus
KEY CONCEPT: The more classification levels that two organisms share, the more characteristics they have in common. A series of 8 levels of classification are used. The largest group of the most varied organisms is the Domain. The smallest, and most specific group is a Species. Only two of the same species may mate and produce fertile offspring. Levels of Classification
Domains and Kingdoms KEY CONCEPT: Organisms are placed into Domains and Kingdoms based on their cell type, ability to make food, and the number of cells in their bodies. • The 3 Domains are Bacteria, Archae, and Eukarya. • Bacteria are Prokaryotes, have no nucleus, and are unicellular, some are autotrophs, some are heterotrophs. • Archae are unicellular, are found in hot springs, are prokaryotes, and either autotrophs or heterotrophs. • Bacteria and Archae differ in their chemical make-up.
Domain Eukarya KEY CONCEPT: The domain Eukarya can be further divided into 4 Kingdoms; Protista, Fungi, Plant, Animal. • All members of Eukarya have cells that contain nuclei. • Protists are unicellular. • Fungi are multicellular, heterotrophic (decomposers). Ex.- molds, yeast, fungus, mushrooms. • Plants are multicellular, autotrophic. • Animals are multicellular, heterotrophic.
Monera Protista Fungi Planta Animalia Unicellular, prokaryotes, Bacteria Unicellular, eukaryotes & algae Multicellular, absorptive feeders, decomposers Muticellular, autotrophs Muticellular, heterotrophs 5 Major Kingdoms:
Scientific Name: • Latin • Italics or underlined • Genus species • Homo sapien
Family: Less closely related Larger group Genus: More closely related Precedes species= interbreeding Family:Felidae Lions, tigers, leopards house cats,cheetahs, ocelots Genus: Panthera Leopards (pardus) Lion (leo) Tigers (tigris) Family or Genus Relations?
Fossil Skulls DNA Sequences Hair Samples Pictures Classification by characteristics: Most Useful Least