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Special features of bone tissue Few cells with large amounts of intercellular material =Matrix. Special features of muscle tissue. Contract Extend Excitable Elastic. Transition Lecture: Skeletal System Review/Muscular System. Special features of bone tissue Matrix = minerals and salt
Special features of bone tissue Few cells with large amounts of intercellular material =Matrix Special features ofmuscle tissue. Contract Extend Excitable Elastic Transition Lecture: Skeletal System Review/Muscular System
Special features of bone tissue Matrix = minerals and salt Osteonic system Lamella, lacunae Osteocytes periosteum Special features ofmuscle tissue. Elastic fibers: myofibrils Many nuclei in each cells Very long cells perimysium Tissue comparisons
Bone is a combination of matrix and cells, filled with marrow, blood vessels, nerves and surrounded by connective tissue. Muscles are organs made up of muscle tissue plus connective tissue and nervous tissue. Tissue comparisons
Special features of bone tissue Spongy Compact (dense) Special features ofmuscle tissue. Smooth or Straiated Voluntary or involuntary Tissue comparisons
Skeletal Framework Movement Protect organs Produce blood cells Mineral storage Muscular Movment Support Heat production Functions
Skeletal head Neck Spine Condyle Trochanter process Muscular tendon (mysium)- muscle to bone. Attach to processes, spines, etc. Attachments
Skeletal crest - fossa - foramen meatus - sinus Muscular
On your “muscle man” – locate the following. Axial skeletal muscles: • Occipitalis • Frontalis • Orbicularis oculi (think Greek) • Orbicularis oris (think Greek) • Temporalis • Sternoomastoid (aka: sternocleidomastoid)
Appendicular skeleton • Brachioradialis • Tibialis anterior
Muscular System “all that moves me” Reading assignments: Wingerd pp. 197-208, 231
I. Muscle tissue A. Specialization 1. Properties a. C - the ability of a cell to shorten in length.
b. E lity - the ability to receive and respond to stimuli. c. E bility - the ability of a cell to increase in length. d. E - the ability to return to resting form after contracted or stretched.
2. The muscular system skeletal muscle tissue and related structures only – not smooth or cardiac muscle a. About 500 different muscles
b. Generally ____% to ____% of our body weight c. Functions of skeletal muscles. 1) M____________ - highly coordinated with bones, nerves, joints.
2) S___________ - strengthens skeletal frame 3) H___ p________ - as byproduct of m__________, body heat maintained.
B. Muscle Anatomy - muscles are _______ made up of muscle _________ plus c__________ tissue and n________ tissue.
1. C_____________ tissues of muscle. Provides route for nerves and blood vessels and supports each muscle or part of the muscle. a. D – “Epimysium” = sheet or broad band of connective tissue surrounding muscles.
b. P mysium = divides the muscle into bundles called f______. c. E mysium = a very thin covering around individual muscle ______.
d. T = a combination of the 3 "mysiums" to connect muscle to the p____________.
2. Microanatomy of muscle. a. Single cell - muscle f_________ – some characteristics: 1) multi__________ 2) very long and thin (up to .5 meters long and .1 mm diameter)
b. Special plasma membrane (cell membrane) called s lemma. c. Special cytoplasm called s plasm. Contains many m_________________.
Special network called s plasmic r . – • stores ______________. 1) T-tubules - connect sections of sarcoplasmic reticulum as well as the sarcolemma.
e. Myo - cylindrical cords of protein each having a sarcoplasmic reticulum. 1) Myo______________ a) thick filaments - made of the protein myosin with small projections.
b) thin filaments - made of the protein actin, troponin, and tropomyosin
2) Myofilaments form the striations that characterizes skeletal muscles.
3. Nerve supply. a. motor n = the nerve cell that carries the action potential (impulse) to a muscle fiber. It originates in the spinal cord and terminates at the muscle fibers.
b. motor u = the motor neuron and many muscle fibers (25 to 3000) it connects to.
c. N muscular j__________ 1) terminal end of motor neuron
2) the depression in sarcolemma called the s cleft. a) the motor end plate is the section of sarcolemma lining the cleft.
d. A - a chemical which transmits signals. Located in vesicles of the terminal end of the motor neuron.
C. Muscle Physiology 1. Muscle contraction. - The f______________ slide.
a. How it all begins - Action potential (Stimulus, requirement 1) 1) A_____ potential arrives at __________ end of the motor _______.
2) A__________ is released to motor end plate of ____________. 3) Acetylcholine binds to receptor sites on motor _____ ______.
4) P____________ of __+ and __+ increases and a_______ p __________ transfers to the muscles.
b. What is happening at the muscle? 1) R_______ stage - Ca2+ stored in s__________ r___________.
ATP is bound to _________ (thick filaments) 2) Upon stimulus, action potential travels down Sarcolemma, down the T-________ and into the s__________ reticulum
a) The action potential increases permeability of sarcoplasmic reticulum to ___2+ , b) ___2+ released to m____________
3) Ca2+ binds to __________ in thin filaments 4) A______and t_______ change in shape. 5) “______" over binding sites opens.
6) -projection on thick filament called "cross bridges" bind to binding sites. - ________ ions activate decomposition of ____
7) Breakdown of _____ provides energy for moving cross bridges and heat _________.
8) New ____ molecule binds to the _______ breaking the cross bridge connection.
2. Muscle relaxation. a. A_____________ is inactivated by acetylcholin_______.
b. ___________ ions are returnd to the sarcoplasmic reticulum by active transport. c. B________ s____ are once again covered.
3. Energy for contraction. (source: Vander, Sherman, Luciano page 233-236) a. Uses of energy. 1) C______ bridge movement
2) C______ bridge breaking 3) Return of ________to SR for relaxation.
AP TEST only b. Source of energy. - Breaking of high-energy phosphate bonds from ATP. 1) Synthesis of ATP - 3 sources (very little is stored in muscle - aerobic cellular respiration - amounts forminimal storage )
b) creatine phosphate CP + ADP C + ATP c) oxidative phosphylation (in mitochondria) - O2 + Fatty acids ATP (needs Oxygen, nutrients and enzymes) d) glycolysis - glucose and glycogen ATP + lactic acid(produces ATP rapidly and without Oxygen)
Part 2 - Muscles I. Anatomical terminology A. Attachment 1. _________ - more stationary bone attachement (generally proximal)