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Intake : Na + ~ 5-200 mmoles/day K + ~ 50-300 “ H 2 0 ~ 0.5-3 L/day H + ~ 50-100 mEq/day. Air water ~ 3000 mOsm/Kg H 2 0. Extracellular Fluid Volume ~ 1/3 body water; Osmol 290 mOsm/Kg H 2 0 Na + 142 mM; K + 4 mM; H + 40 nM (pH 7.40). Cells. urine. Kidney.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1
Intake:

Na+ ~ 5-200 mmoles/day

K+~ 50-300 “

H20 ~ 0.5-3 L/day

H+ ~ 50-100 mEq/day

Air water ~ 3000 mOsm/Kg H20

Extracellular Fluid

Volume ~ 1/3 body water; Osmol 290 mOsm/Kg H20

Na+ 142 mM; K+ 4 mM; H+ 40 nM (pH 7.40)

Cells

urine

blood flow in resting human
Blood Flow in Resting Human

RPF ~ 600 m/mi = 36L/h = 864L/day

volume of urine
Volume of Urine

GFR

~ 200

L/day

~0.5-2 L/day

forces determining gfr
Forces Determining GFR

Systemic capillary: F = Kf x [(Pc-Pi) - (c-I)]

Glomerular capillary: GFR = Kf x [(Pgc-Pu) – (gc-u)]

Because Pu is unregulated and believed to be constant

and U = 0, then

GFR = Kf x (P - gc)

filtration pressures in glomerular capillary1
Filtration Pressures in Glomerular Capillary

DP = PGC-PU

40

PUF

30

GFR=Kf x (P - GC)

= Kf x PUF

mm Hg

20

GC

10

factors regulating p gc
Factors Regulating PGC

Control

Angiotensin II

ANP

P

P

PUF

PUF

P

PUF

30

pGC

mm Hg

pGC

pGC

10

A

E

A

E

A

E

Distance Along Glomerular Capillary

volume of urine1
Volume of Urine

GFR

~ 50 -

200 L/d

Urine,

~ 0.5 – 15 L/d

starling s forces in peritubular capillary
Starling’sForces in Peritubular Capillary

PR = Kf (C - i) – (PC- Pi)

PR = Kf ( - P)

glomerular and peritubular starling forces
Glomerular and Peritubular Starling Forces

Control

Angiotensin II

DP

DP (PGC – PU)

PUF

Dp

Dp

PUF

30

pGC

pGC

mm Hg

PR

PR

10

DP

DP

glomerular

peritubular

peritubular

glomerular

Distance Along Capillary

renin angiotensin system
Renin-Angiotensin System

angiotensinogen

renin

angiotensin I

converting enzyme

angiotensin II

increases PT reabs

vasoconstriction

efferent constriction;

net PT reabsorption

angiotensin ii direct effects on kidney function
Angiotensin II Direct Effects on Kidney Function

1 - constricts Efferent Arteriole: PGC and GC ;

does not change GFR but peritubular

capillary  and, therefore, net Proximal

Tubule sodium reabsorption

2- directly Proximal Tubule Na+ transport

renin angiotensin system1
Renin-Angiotensin System

aldosterone; CD reabsorption

angiotensinogen

renin

angiotensin I

converting enzyme

angiotensin II

efferent constriction;

PT reabsorption

vasoconstriction

fractional na in urine along the nephron
Fractional Na+in Urine along the Nephron

Fraction

in urine

(x 100)

Angio IIAldosterone

measurement of gfr
Measurement of GFR

If a substance is freely filterable, then its rate of filtration is,

Plasma [x] x GFR vol/time

The rate of urinary excretion of any substance is,

Urine [x] x Urine volume/time

If all of x that is filtered appears in the final urine, then we have

P[x] x GFR = U[x] x V

and,

GFR = U[x] x V / P[x]

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