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CELLS. Chapter 7.1. CELL BIOLOGISTS. Anton van Leeuwenhoek - Dutch lens maker who developed the first simple microscope. CELL BIOLOGISTS. Robert Hooke - English scientist. First coined the word “cells” after looking at cork . CELL BIOLOGISTS.

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  1. CELLS Chapter 7.1

  2. CELL BIOLOGISTS • Anton van Leeuwenhoek - Dutch lens maker who developed the first simple microscope

  3. CELL BIOLOGISTS • Robert Hooke - English scientist

  4. First coined the word “cells” after looking at cork.

  5. CELL BIOLOGISTS • Matthias Schleiden - German Botanist who studied plant cells

  6. CELL BIOLOGISTS • Theodor Schwann - German Zoologist - studied animal cells

  7. CELL BIOLOGISTS • Rudolf Virchow • German physician • New cells could be produced only from the division of existing cells rudolfvirchow.net/

  8. CELL THEORY:1. All living things are made of cells

  9. The cell is the basic unit of structure and function 3. Cells come from other cells

  10. TYPES OF CELLS • Prokaryotic - cells with no nucleus or membrane bound organelles • very simple cells • bacteria, some blue-green algae

  11. Eukaryotic - cells with a nucleus and membrane bound organelles • complex cells • animal, plant, fungi, protist

  12. Unicellular Organisms • ONE- celled organisms which • Grow • Respond to environment • Transform energy • Reproduce • Ex: Volvox aureus www.volvoxaureus.com/volvox.htm

  13. Multicellular Organism • Organisms made up of MANY cells • Different kinds of cells are SPECIALIZED to perform particular functions within the organism • Ex: muscles cells, nerve cells, guard cells, red blood cells…

  14. Typical Cell?

  15. Levels of Organization • Observed in Multicellular Organisms • Cells- of similar type work together to form • Tissues- grouped together to form  • Organs- work together as part of • Organ System- group of organs working together to perform a specific function • Organism- all systems working together

  16. CELL STRUCTUREPlasma Membrane • selectively permeable • separates cell from its environment • composed of lipid bilayer with embedded proteins

  17. CELL STRUCTURENucleus • surrounded by nuclear envelope • contains genetic information (chromosomes), • “brain” of the cell

  18. Nucleus

  19. Nucleolus • Inside the nucleus • Makes ribosomes

  20. CELL STRUCTURECytoplasm • Composed mostly of water • Has salts, sugars, proteins and other materials suspended in it • Colloid consistency

  21. CELL STRUCTURESOrganelles - Mitochondria • Powerhouse of the cell • Contains its own DNA • Can reproduce when cell energy demands increase • Converts glucose to other energy forms

  22. The Mighty Mitochondria

  23. Chloroplast • Only in plant, algae, and some bacterial cells • Convert the sun’s energy to glucose • Composed of “solar collectors” called grana • Contain chlorophyll pigment

  24. Chloroplast

  25. Ribosomes • Protein manufacturing site • Young cells have many more than older cells

  26. Endoplasmic Reticulum • Network of tubes that transport materials within the cell and to the cell surface for release • smooth and rough e.r.

  27. Smooth ER • Manufactures and transports lipids within the cell

  28. Rough E.R. • Rough in appearance due to presence of ribosomes • Manufactures and transports proteins to cell surface for release

  29. Endoplasmic Reticulum

  30. Golgi Apparatus • Packages and processes cellular materials and prepares them for shipment

  31. Golgi Apparatus

  32. Golgi Apparatus

  33. Lysosome • Site of cell digestion • Contains digestive enzymes • Called “suicide sacs” • Responsible for cell destruction

  34. Vacuole • Used by cells to store nutrients, wastes, and cellular products; water storage

  35. Vacuoles

  36. Vesicles • Used by cells to temporarily store cellular products (such as hormones and enzymes) before release from the cell

  37. Centrioles • Found only in animal cells • Used during cellular reproduction to help separate chromosomes evenly

  38. Cytoskeleton • Protein filaments which act as scaffolding to support cellular components • Major component of cilia and flagella

  39. Cilia and Flagella • Structures used for locomotion of organism or transportation of materials

  40. Plastids • Found only in plant cells • Used to store plant materials • Chromoplasts - color • Chloroplasts – chlorophyll • Leucoplasts – starch

  41. Cell Wall • Found in plants, fungi, and some bacteria • NOT found in animal cells • Made of cellulose, chitin or some other carbohydrate • Rigid, provide strength, support, protection • Like armor for the plant cell

  42. Cell Wall

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