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First Aid

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  1. First Aid ◊ The immediate, temporary care given to an ill or injured person until professional medical care can be provided. ◊ Check the surrounding environment. ◊ Your safety is the 1st priority!

  2. C’s of Emergency Care Check – Call - Care ◊ Check the victim for life-threatening conditions. Only move the victim if he/she is in direct physical danger. ◊ Call 911. Leave the scene if necessary. ◊ Care for the victim. Ask permission to help. Unconsciousness implies consent.

  3. Good Samaritan Laws ◊ Statutes (laws) that protect rescuers from being sued for giving emergency care ◊ You may not provide care beyond your level of training ◊ You must be acting in the best interest of the victim

  4. Universal Precautions ◊ Steps taken to prevent the spread of disease through blood and other bodily fluids. ◊ Chemical resistant gloves (usually latex) ◊ Wash hands immediately after providing First Aid ◊ Use mouth piece or rescue mask when providing rescue breathing/CPR.

  5. Universal Precautions

  6. Types of Wounds Abrasion: (scrape) Injury to the top layer of skin. Chief concern is bacterial infection. Clean and protect.

  7. Types of Wounds Laceration: (cut) caused by sharp objects slicing through skin. Severe lacerations may require stitches and a tetanus booster.

  8. Types of Wounds Punctures: A small but deep hole caused by a sharp narrow object. High risk of infection. Usually does not cause heavy bleeding.

  9. Types of Wounds Avulsions: Occurs when skin or tissue is partly or completely torn away. If possible wrap the severed body part in a sterile, cold, moist towel to preserve the tissue.

  10. Controlling Bleeding ◊ Raise wound above the level of the heart. ◊ Cover with sterile gauze or cloth. ◊ Use direct pressure to stop the bleeding ◊ Once bleeding stops secure gauze with a bandage. Seek medical attention if needed.

  11. Types of Burns ◊ First degree burns: Involves the outermost layer of skin (epidermis). ◊ Redness, Swelling and Pain ◊ About 1 week healing time

  12. Types of Burns ◊Second degree burns: Involves epidermis and underlying layers of skin (dermis). Skin becomes very red, swollen, and develops blisters

  13. Types of Burns ◊Third degree burns: Involve all layers of skin. The skin may be charred black or appear white & dry. The burn may damage nerve cells so the victim may not experience pain.

  14. First Aid for 1st & Minor 2nd Degree Burns ◊ Cool the burned area by holding under cold running water for 5 minutes. Wrap in cold wet cloths. Do not use ice! ◊ Cover the burn loosely with sterile gauze. ◊3rd degree burns require immediate medical attention – Call 911

  15. Chain of Survival ◊ A sequence of actions that maximize the victim’s chances of survival ◊ Survey the scene ◊ Check the victim for consciousness ◊ Call 911 (if needed) ◊ Provide necessary Care 3 C’s

  16. CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation) ◊ A first aid procedure that combines rescue breathing and chest compressions to supply oxygen to the body. ◊ Defibrillator: A device that delivers an electrical shock to the heart to restore normal its normal rhythm. (Automated External Defibrillator - AED)

  17. CPR for Adults ◊Survey the scene ◊Check for Consciousness (Are you OK!) ◊Call 911 ◊CABs ◊Chest Compressions ◊Airway ◊Breathing

  18. CPR for Adults

  19. CPR for Adults ◊Perform 30 chest compressions first ◊Followed by 2 breaths of air– repeat this process until more advance medical help arrives.

  20. CPR for Infants and Children (under 8 years old) ◊Children ◊Give shallower breaths ◊Give compressions with heel of one hand on the sternum. ◊2 breaths:30 compression

  21. CPR for Infants and Children (under 8 years old) ◊Infants ◊Take pulse on brachial artery ◊Give shallower breaths (puff of air) ◊Give compressions with middle & ring finger ◊30 Compression: 2 breaths

  22. Dr. Oz on Heart Attacks

  23. Anatomy of a Heart Attack

  24. Angioplasty & Stenting

  25. First Aid for Choking ◊ Conscious adult ◊ Stand behind victim, wrap arms around their waist. ◊ Make a fist with one hand and grasp it with your other hand. ◊ Quick upward thrust. “J” shape movement ◊ Repeat until object is dislodged.

  26. First Aid for Choking ◊ Unconscious adult: ◊ Lower victim to the ground and try to clear airway. ◊ Reach into mouth and sweep object out with one finger. ◊ If object can not be dislodged, begin CPR. Chest compressions may dislodge object.

  27. Xiphoid Process

  28. First Aid for Choking ◊ If you are Alone: ◊ Perform abdominal thrust on yourself. ◊ Position abdomen over rigid structure (countertop, back of chair). ◊ Press against the object to thrust your abdomen upward and inward.

  29. Safety at Home • The accident chain: a sequence of events that leads to injury. • Unsafe situation • Unsafe habit • Unsafe action • The accident • The consequences

  30. Safety at Home • PreventingFires • Common causes: candles, smoking, faulty electrical wiring, kitchen fires. • Don’t leave candles and cooking food unattended. Clean stove. • Follow operating instructions for space heaters • Don’t smoke in the house • Dryer fires

  31. Safety at Home Fire extinguishers:

  32. Safety at Home SmokeAlarms :

  33. Safety at Home Who would’ve thought?

  34. Safety at Home • Electricity • Overloading system • Inspect electrical cords • Keep cords free of debris (furniture, rugs, toys…) • Don’t nail or staple cords down • Don’t use electrical devises near water • Cover unused electrical outlets

  35. Safety at Home • Electricity

  36. Safety at Home • Falls • Keep stairways clear of clutter and well lit • Fasten area rugs • Window guards • Keep electrical cords out of walkways

  37. Safety at Home • Preventing the 5 Most Fatal Home Accidents

  38. Safety at Home Where to place smoke and carbon monoxide detectors

  39. What’s your plan?

  40. Muscle & Joint Injuries

  41. Muscle & Joint Injuries ◊ Strain: A tear in the muscle or tendon . ◊ Sprain: An injury to the ligaments around a joint. ◊ Symptoms include pain, stiffness, swelling, limited mobility, and bruising around the area.

  42. Muscle & Joint Injuries (P.R.I.C.E.) ◊Protect-wrap with bandage or splint ◊Rest-rest injured area for at least 1 day. ◊Ice-to reduce swelling and pain. 10-15 minutes, three times a day. ◊Compress-wrap firmly with a bandage. ◊Elevate-raise above the heart.

  43. Fractures & Dislocations ◊Fracture: A break in a bone Tibial Fracture & Fibular Fracture Humeral Fracture

  44. Fractures & Dislocations ◊Dislocations: a separation of a bone from its normal position in a joint. Dislocated elbow

  45. Fractures & Dislocations ◊Symptoms of fractures and dislocations include pain, stiffness, swelling, limited mobility, and bruising around the area.