Daily Opener 3/18 1. What were some of the problems people had with the Catholic Church? 2. Who was Martin Luther?
The Spread of Protestantism Reformation Notes
Corruption in the Medieval Catholic Church Slide 3.2 A
What forms of corruption existed within the Church during the Late Middle Ages?
Popes used excommunication to force monarchs to obey the Church Many priests were illiterate Some officials led lives of luxury and leisure Some clergy Charged Christians to see holy objects Sold church offices to highest bidder (simony) Sold indulgences
1. Babylonian Captivity (1305-1375) • Philip IV (France) argued with pope over his power to tax the clergy • Pope Boniface kidnapped in 1296 and replaced with French pope, Clement V • Clement V moved capital of Church from Rome to France • Seven popes ruled the Church from Avignon, France
2. The Great Schism (1378-1417) • Papacy moved back to Rome in 1376 • French cardinals elected a new pope, Clement VII • Both Urban VI and Clement VII claimed to be the rightful pope • Many Christians questioned the authority of the papacy
Why did Luther question Church practices and teachings? • Troubled by idea that salvation was attainable through good works • Believed that path to salvation was by faith alone • Angered by sale of indulgences • Believed forgiveness for sins could come only from God’s mercy
What was his early life like? • Son of middle-class German parents • Studied law • Became a Catholic monk
How did his criticisms expanded into an effort to form a new church? • Wrote 95 Theses to start debate on church abuses • Published books questioning Church teachings • Ideas for reform led to a new church • Congregations choose their own ministers • Mass conducted in German instead of Latin • Clergy allowed to marry
Why did his reforms create widespread revolt in Germany? • Peasants, believing everyone was equal under God, revolted against lords • Princes, who wanted freedom from the pope, seized Church land • Peace of Augsburg forced many to move in order to worship freely