Opener • What was going on in the world when everything went “modern”? • 1. Write down three social, historical, or technological changes/inventions that took place in the 20th century and influenced the development of modern art. • 2. Explain each example and WHY it was so important. • You have 5 minutes – GO!
Opening Agenda Things to Get: - Handouts off of the shelf below – return reading when done. Things to Do: -Opener on your own paper – continue to leave them at the beginning of your unit. -Start Unit 11 - Modern Notes -Cubist Self-Portrait (If you haven’t done yet)
Modern Opener #1 • 1) What were some initial reactions to Les Demoiselles d’Avignon? • 2) What is the subject matter of Les Demoiselles d’Avignon? • 3) List the different styles Picasso uses in this painting. • 4) How many heads are painted in the same style as their bodies? • 5) Name two things that, without cubism, the modern world would not know. • 6) How did Picasso see Africa’s goods (in other words, how did they inspire him)? • 7) How did this painting get its name? • 8) What is a modern controversy surrounding this painting?
Modern Art The 20th Century
What is the main idea of Modern art? • The three main characteristics of Modern Art are: • Breaks with or redefines the conventions of the past. • Uses experimental techniques. • Shows the diversity of society and the blending of cultures.
Events that influenced art of the 20th century • World War One • - shattered the optimistic beliefs in perpetual peace in the world • - brutality of war • Infirmary and Public Service Advertisement • World War Two • exposed the world to Fascism, war, and militarism • American Propaganda Posters
Events that influenced art of the 20th century The Civil Rights Movement - Social upheaval granted equality to most minority groups Feminism- Women gain more rights and their roles change in society
Events that influenced art of the 20th century 1920’s Sexual Revolution- - inspired attitudes of free spirit and desires for good times 1950’s: - Rise of commercialism and suburbanization 1960’s Sexual Revolution
Events that influenced art of the 20th century Technological Advances - war machines, cars, electric lights, computers Globalization - the world becomes closer as people travel, communicate, and trade faster and more extensively then ever before.
What is the effect that all of these events have on modern art? • Instead of creating artwork that was pretty, modern artists began to create artwork that attempted to change society and express emotion. SO IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND!!
Modern Visual Art: Part One • Picasso, O’Keefe, and Lange
Pablo Picasso • Born on October 25, 1881 in Malaga, Spain. • Son of an art and drawing teacher. • Picasso was an art student practically from birth; he was fully trained as an artist by the age of 19. • His first exhibit was in Barcelona, Spain in 1900. Soon after, Picasso moved to France. • Picasso spent most of his time in Paris and Barcelona for the next five years.
Nude, Green Leaves and Bust • 1932 • painting of his mistress • $106.5 million • world record price for any work of art at auction • Owned by sister of JFK for 50 years
Picasso’s Early Art • Le Moulin de la Galette (1900) • Sabartes Seated (1900)
Parisian Influence on Picasso • While in Paris, Picasso rejected schooling and became friends with a group of young, avante-garde artists, collectively know as modernists. • The modernists were known for their interest in symbolism in art and social causes (including the urban underprivileged). • Picasso would chose to paint the poor or disenfranchise: the prostitutes, the beggars, street musicians, etc. He felt that these individuals understood him and his pain. • He assimilated the ideas of Post-Impressionist painters- Van Gogh, Cezanne, Seurat, etc. into his own works while in Paris.
“The Blue Period”: The Influence of Emotions on Picasso • 1901- Picasso’s “Blue Period” • Characteristics: • All works are in monochromatic blue • Represented melancholy and despair • Examples of Influence in Work: • The painting is completely done in blues • Sadness is shown by the man’s face The Old Guitar Player, 1903
African Influence on Picasso (1902-1907), • Time Period: • 1902-1907 • In the early 1900’s, the art of Africa was gaining a lot of attention from Western audiences. • While living in Paris, he visited the Museed’Ethnographie du Trocadero (now Musee de l’Homme). It was the only place in Paris where African art was on display. • Characteristics: What is the connection between African Masks and cubism? • The masks allowed Picasso to learn how to show one subject from multiple perspectives. • Examples of influence in work: • Three women have on African masks Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, 1906
Picasso’s “Rose Period” • Time Period: • Began in 1904 • Characteristics: • Works were completed in different shades of red • Examples of Influence in work: • The paintings have a faint red tint • During this period, Picasso’s subjects were mainly circus and fair performers (mainly a migrant community of acrobats, musicians, and clowns- saltimbanques). • These subjects were usually shown in relaxed, happy settings. Family of Saltimbanques, 1905
Picasso and Cubism • Time Period: • In 1907, Picasso co-founded cubism. • Characteristics: • Cubism- natural forms were reduced to fractured, geometric structures, or “little cubes.” • Examples of Influence in Work: • All subject matter is made by arranging shapes (look at the ZZtop dude) • Became the basis of all abstract art to follow. Three Musicians, 1921
Guernica • 1937, Oil on Canvas
Guernica • It is regarded as Modern art’s most powerful anti-war statement. • Commissioned by the Spanish Republican government for the Spanish pavilion at the 1937 World’s Fair in Paris. • Commemorates the Nazi bombing of Gernika, Spain on April 27, 1937 during the Spanish Civil War. Gernika burned for three days due to the brutal Nazi attack; this small village was not a logical choice for bombing-why? • Sixteen hundred civilians are killed or wounded.
Guernica- In Symbols • 1937, Oil on Canvas
Guernica- In symbolsRemember! Symbolism is super important in modern art! • The soldier’s left hand: • There is a stigmata in it. A stigmata is the spot on Jesus’ hand where he was nailed to the cross. This doesn’t mean that the solder was a martyr (someone who died for the glory of the state) because there is no glorification of war in this picture. It means that he died for Spain, but there was no glory in it. It is also a reference to the Christ imagery in Goya’s “Third of May 1808.” • The woman and child on the left: • Represents the innocent civilians who were ruthlessly murdered at Gernika. • The Minotaur: • Is a half man, half bull figure from Greek mythology. He hunted people in the labyrinth and killed them. Here, it represents the Nazi’s. After all, it is the Minotaur who creates all of the destruction. • The Soldier’s Face: • The soldier died in pain. He is not a glorified soldier of the state. War is terrible and painful; you can see it in his face. He symbolizes the brutality of war.
Guernica- In symbolsRemember! Symbolism is super important in modern art! • The cut in the horse’s side: • It is a very deep cut that will kill the horse. It shows that nothing good can come from war; war destroys society. • The screaming person on the right: • Another innocent civilian who was murdered at Gernika. It is important to note that this figure is a woman because women did not, for the most part, fight in World War Two. • The light hanging from the ceiling: • Also known as the evil eye. It represents torture and the propaganda that people follow during war time. Figures in the painting are reaching towards it; however, it is the false light to follow. • The light in the person’s hand: • The light that people should follow: it will lead them out of war (think of the symbolism in the Statue of Liberty- her torch light should bring all people to America).
Pablo Picasso Video Questions • 1) When did Picasso live? • 2) At what age did Picasso surpass his dad as a painter? • 3) What city did Picasso move to that allowed him to feel creative freedom? • 4) What was the major turning point in Picasso’s life? • 5) What period did this event start in Picasso’s life? 3:39…
Modern Visual Arts Continued • O’Keefe • Lange • Dali
Opener #2 - Quiz over Picasso • What was the anti-war piece by Picasso? • What was one piece of symbolism from this painting? • Name three of Picasso’s styles. Which one turned natural forms into geometric shapes? • During his Blue Period, what two things did blue represent? • Name the three main characteristics of Modern Art.
Agenda – Dali and Surrealism • Grab the handout and answer sheet from the front shelf. • Answer the questions corresponding to the reading sections on Dali’s art works.
Persistence of Memory • What scientist’s ideas of the time influenced Dali’s work? • What sort of images did Dali use to confuse and disturb people? • From the picture caption, what did Dali call his paintings? • Metamorphosis of Narcissus • What is the mythical story of Narcissus? • What famous thinker developed this term? • What is the double, even triple imagery, in this painting? • How does Dali suggest narcissism can be positive? • Autumn Cannibalism • What is the style of painting used by Dali in this piece? (hint: he left no visible brush strokes) • What war inspired this painting? • What previous artist was he emulating? • He uses cannibalism to show his ___________________________ for war. • Un Chien Andalou • Surrealism, as an art style, used strange, _________________________ images. • What new technique did Dali and Bunuel use to startle the audience? • What Russian filmmaker developed this style? • What two dream images, from Dali and Bunuel, helped inspire the film?
Salvador Dali • 1904 – 1989 • Spanish • one of the most important painters of the 20th century • skilled draftsman • known for bizarre and beautiful images in his surrealist work • Painted from his dreams • Sex, violence, death themes
Surrealism • Real objects in unrealistic settings
Dali's strong dislike for bullfights is apparent in the image of the slain bull, and also in the hidden image of a bullfighter. If the viewer stands at a distance and examines the second Venus de Milo statue, he may see that the bust of the statue forms a nose and the arms forms the shape • of a mouth. Upon further scrutiny he can see that the colors of the statue's skirt, along with the statue next to it, make up his shirt, necktie, and scarf. The circular shape of the second Venus's face makes up the bullfighter's eye, and the soft white area around the eye suggests a tear. A small boy in the viewer's right bottom corner represents Dali himself, and the artist also included an image of his wife Gala in the upper left corner. She looks upon the scene of the slain bull and of the young Dali with a frown on her face, clearly showing her disapproval of the bullfight. Dali also included a swarm of gadflies flying over the arena, making up a pattern that suggests a hairnet. The bullfighters wore these under their hats, and from this the viewer can see that the arena also serves as a hat for the hidden bullfighter in this painting."The Hallucinogenic Toreador" is considered Dali's most autobiographical work, and was even called "all of Dalí in one painting" by the artist himself. By depicting himself as a young boy and not an adult, Dali portrays his childhood and budding sexuality in the way that he gazes at the nude statues. The blood from the slain bull also serves as a bay upon which a woman floats on a raft, the serene image a striking contrast to the emotional imagery of the slaughtered animal. This contrast conveyed Dali's distaste for the mass tourism of Cape Creus, where the painting was created. Dali also included in this painting an image of Voltaire and a rose, both of which symbolize Dali's own work and the influence of other artists. It is with these images in mind that the viewer can see the power in the piece, and realize that this painting is essential Dali in its beauty and emotional force.Dali's work often mixes disturbing images with conventional ones to try to coax the viewer into freeing his mind and entering his own state of paranoia to release his own subconscious thoughts. While it is impossible to deny the power of his pieces, it is also worthy of noting that some of his pieces do not convey as powerful an image as "The Hallucinogenic Toreador," such as "Baby Map of the World," which was painted in 1939. This earlier piece depicts a baby's smiling head as a globe set against a surreal background, and while the detail is striking and the image is indeed unconventional, it does not evoke the emotions that "The Hallucinogenic Toreador" does.
Un Chien Andalou Part 1 / Part 2 • Film collaboration between Salvador Dali and Luis Bunuel • Dali attempting to create a surrealist film based on his dreams. • 1929 • First film produced purely within the Surrealist Movement
“Intended to provoke rather than please, Un Chien Andalou is a triumph of art and a hysterically dark joy ride whose power to affront the viewer is undiminished after more than three quarters of a century.” -dvd synopsis • After watching the film, what do you think was meant by this statement? • Give an example of a scene that “provokes” the viewer. • Why is this a triumph of art and a hysterically dark joy ride?