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Making Waves: Seismic Waves Activities and Demonstrations

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Making Waves: Seismic Waves Activities and Demonstrations. Larry Braile , Purdue University [email protected] , web.ics.purdue.edu/~braile Sheryl Braile , Happy Hollow School West Lafayette, IN CSTA Conference, October 2009 Palm Springs, CA.

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slide1
Making Waves: Seismic Waves Activities and Demonstrations

Larry Braile, Purdue University

[email protected],

web.ics.purdue.edu/~braile

Sheryl Braile, Happy Hollow School

West Lafayette, IN

CSTA Conference, October 2009

Palm Springs, CA

This PowerPoint file: http://web.ics.purdue.edu/~braile/new/SeismicWaves.ppt

seismic waves
Seismic Waves
  • Slinky – P, S, Rayleigh, Love waves;

Reflection and transmission; energy carried by waves; elastic rebound/plate motions and the slinky; 5-slinky model – waves in all directions, travel times to different distances.

  • Human wave demo – P and S waves in solids and liquids.
  • Seismic wave animations – P, S, Rayleigh, Love waves; wave motion; wave propagation activity.
  • Seismograms – Viewing seismograms on your computer (AmaSeis software).
  • Seismic Waves software – Wave propagation through the Earth.
why use several approaches for teaching about seismic waves
Why use several approaches for teaching about seismic waves?
  • Fundamental concept (worth spending time on)
  • Different approaches for different settings or size of group
  • Different learning styles
  • Reinforce with more than one approach
  • Demonstrations, animations and hands-on activities
  • Use one or more approach for authentic assessment
slide4
Elasticity – a property of materials that results

In wave propagation and earthquakes

* Difference in length of spring before and after adding mass.

slide6
Slinky and human wave demo and wave tank and elasticity experiments:

http://web.ics.purdue.edu/~braile/edumod/slinky/slinky.htm

http://web.ics.purdue.edu/~braile/edumod/slinky/slinky.doc

http://web.ics.purdue.edu/~braile/edumod/slinky/slinky.pdf

slide9
A simple wave tank experiment – a ping pong ball is dropped onto the surface of the water; small floats aid viewing of the waves; distance marks on the bottom of the container allow calculation of wave velocity.
slide10
Seismic waves and the slinky(also, see the 4-page slinky write-up at: http://web.ics.purdue.edu/~braile/edumod/slinky/slinky4.doc)
  • P and S waves
  • Love and Rayleigh waves
  • Wave reflection and transmission
  • Elastic rebound
  • Waves carry energy
  • The five slinky model (waves in all directions and different travel times to different locations – the way that earthquakes are located)
slide11
Seismic waves carry energy. Observe the shaking of the model building when P and S waves are propagated along the slinky.
slide12
The 5-slinky model for demonstrating that seismic

waves propagate in all directions and the variation

of travel time with distance.

slide13
The human wave demonstration illustrating P and S

wave propagation in solids and liquids.

slide14
Wave animations

Animation courtesy of Dr. Dan Russell, Kettering University

http://www.kettering.edu/~drussell/demos.html

Seismic Wave animations(Developed by L. Braile)http://web.ics.purdue.edu/~braile/edumod/waves/WaveDemo.htm

dan russell animations the people wave
Dan Russell animations – The people wave

Animation courtesy of Dr. Dan Russell, Kettering University

http://www.kettering.edu/~drussell/demos.html

dan russell animations rayleigh wave
Dan Russell animations – Rayleigh wave

Direction of propagation

Animation courtesy of Dr. Dan Russell, Kettering University

http://www.kettering.edu/~drussell/demos.html

slide17
Compressional Wave (P-Wave) Animation

Deformation propagates. Particle motion consists of alternating

compression and dilation. Particle motion is parallel to the

direction of propagation (longitudinal). Material returns to its

original shape after wave passes.

slide18
Shear Wave (S-Wave) Animation

Deformation propagates. Particle motion consists of alternating transverse motion. Particle motion is perpendicular to the direction of propagation (transverse). Transverse particle motion shown here is vertical but can be in any direction. However, Earth’s layers tend to cause mostly vertical (SV; in the vertical plane) or horizontal (SH) shear motions. Material returns to its original shape after wave passes.

slide19
Rayleigh Wave (R-Wave) Animation

Deformation propagates. Particle motion consists of elliptical motions (generally retrograde elliptical) in the vertical plane and parallel to the direction of propagation. Amplitude decreases with depth. Material returns to its original shape after wave passes.

slide20
Love Wave (L-Wave) Animation

Deformation propagates. Particle motion consists of alternating transverse motions. Particle motion is horizontal and perpendicular to the direction of propagation (transverse). To aid in seeing that the particle motion is purely horizontal, focus on the Y axis (red line) as the wave propagates through it. Amplitude decreases with depth. Material returns to its original shape after wave passes.

slide21
You can download the animations separately to run more efficiently: (http://web.ics.purdue.edu/~braile/edumod/waves/WaveDemo.htm). A complete PowerPoint presentation on the Seismic wave animations is also available at: http://web.ics.purdue.edu/~braile/edumod/waves/WaveDemo.ppt

Demonstrate the AmaSeis software for displaying and analyzing seismograms; software available at:

http://bingweb.binghamton.edu/~ajones/

A tutorial on AmaSeis and links to seismograms that can be downloaded and viewed in AmaSeis available at:

http://web.ics.purdue.edu/~braile/edumod/as1lessons/UsingAmaSeis/UsingAmaSeis.htm

The IRIS Seismographs in Schools program:

http://www.iris.edu/hq/sis

developed by alan jones suny binghamton ny
IRIS AmaSeis

Software

(developed by Alan Jones, SUNY Binghamton, NY)

24-Hour Screen Display

Extracted Seismogram

The AS-1 Seismometer

slide23
Teaching Modules and Tutorials:

http://web.ics.purdue.edu/~braile/edumod/as1lessons/as1lessons.htm

the seismic waves program
The Seismic Waves program

From Alan Jones, SUNY, Binghamton

http://bingweb.binghamton.edu/~ajones/

Earthquake

*

Cross Section

Through Earth

Wavefront

Ray Path

Stations for

Seismograms

Seismograph

Ray Path is perpendicular

to wavefront

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