Weight Workout Design Lesson 51
Planning Your Resistance-Training Workout To be effective, a workout needs to follow a careful plan.
Term to Know Repetition (rep) One completion of an activity or exercise. Components of the Workout A repetition, or rep, is the most basic component of a resistance-training program.
Term to Know Set A group of consecutive reps for any exercise. Components of the Workout If you do ten push-ups, one right after the other, you have done one set of ten reps.
Term to Know Exercise A series of repetitive muscle contractions that build strength and endurance. Components of the Workout In a typical workout, you will do several sets of several different exercises.
Components of the Workout Every exercise has as its primary target a muscle group within one of the six weight-training “body areas.” Shoulders Arms Back Chest Abdominals Legs
Term to Know Circuit Training An approach to resistance training where you rotate from one exercise to the next in a particular sequence. The Strength-Training Circuit Circuit training is the most efficient approach to resistance training for all areas of the body.
Term to Know Large Muscle Group Any group of muscles of large size or any large number of muscles being used at one time. The Strength-Training Circuit One variation of circuit training is to work large muscle groups before small ones. Working large muscle groups requires more strength, energy, and mental concentration.
Term to Know Small Muscle Group Any group of muscles of small size as well as any small number of muscles being used at one time. The Strength-Training Circuit Small muscle groups often play a supporting role in large muscle group exercises. If small muscle groups become fatigued, large muscle exercises will be more difficult.
Variations on the Circuit A second variation of circuit training is to alternate push exercises (extension) with pull exercises (flexing). This gives muscles time to recover and keeps opposing muscles balanced.
Variations on the Circuit A third variation of circuit training is to alternate upper-body exercises with lower body exercises. This method allows muscles more recovery time, but it is more difficult than the other circuit-training options previously discussed.
Variations on the Circuit A fourth variation of circuit training is to work weakest muscles first. By working weak muscles first, you can get the muscle back in shape more quickly.
Applying FITT to Resistance Training FITT factors must be properly adjusted in order to achieve your fitness goals. Before starting a resistance-training program, you must first establish your resistance FITT.
Frequency Frequency in weight training is how often you work out. Most training authorities recommend working out three or four times per week on nonsuccessive days.
Term to Know Total-Body Workout A workout in which all major muscle groups are worked three times a week, with at least one day off between workouts. Frequency The total-body workout is the most popular workout plan for beginners. The total-body workout allows muscles plenty of work, and plenty of rest.
Term to Know Split Workout A workout in which you exercise three or four body areas at each session, working at much higher intensities. Frequency A split workout does not work every muscle group at every session. More recovery time is needed before the same muscle group is worked again.
Intensity Intensity, in weight training, is the amount of exertion or tension placed on a muscle group.
Intensity These factors play a role in determining your training-intensity needs. • The amount of weight you will lift • The number of reps and sets you will do. • How many different exercises you will perform per body area.
Term to Know Training Load How much weight you should lift for a given exercise. Intensity Training load is the most important factor in your FITT.
Term to Know One-rep maximum (1RM) A measure of a lifter’s absolute muscular strength for any given exercise. Intensity To determine your training load, you must first determine your one-rep maximum (1RM).
Intensity Reasons for testing your 1RM: • To determine training load • To identify strengths and weaknesses. • To help you keep track of your progress.
Intensity When you have computed or estimated your 1RM, you can use the results to determine your training load. Beginners should use 50 to 60 percent of their 1RM. Experienced lifters should use 75 to 85 percent of their 1RM.
Intensity How many sets and reps you do is mainly a function of your fitness goals. Is your goal to: • Develop basic muscle fitness? • To increase endurance? • To add bulk? • Maybe a combination of these?
Intensity The more exercises you do to work a body area, the greater the intensity of the workout. Your training goals should be the guiding factor.
Term to Know Recovery Time The duration of the rest periods taken between workout components. Time The most important aspect of time, as a component of resistance training, is recovery time.
Time There should be no resting time between reps, which should be continuous and controlled. In general, the greater the amount of resistance, the more time your muscles need to recover between sets and exercises.
Term to Know Resistance-training cycles Modified programs designed to meet the needs of off-season, pre-season, and in-season. Time Athletes and competitive lifters follow resistance-training cycles.
Type Type or mode of resistance training is the specific activities and equipment you choose to use for your resistance program.
Keeping a Workout Record Keeping accurate workout records will help you to remember what you did earlier and determine which exercises work best for you.
Keeping a Workout Record Include this information in your workout record: • Date • Rest between sets, reps, and exercises. • Order and type of sets, reps, and exercises • Body weight changes • Nutrition habits
Achieving Muscular Fitness To achieve muscular fitness, you must set training goals and plan exercise programs to achieve your goals.
The Basic Resistance Fitness Program Basic resistance-training goals include: Strength Hypertrophy Endurance Fitness and Toning A program, known as the “basic eight,” can help you achieve these goals.
The Basic Resistance Fitness Program The basic eight exercises work the entire body. They take relatively little time and a minimum of equipment.
The Basic Resistance Fitness Program The basic eight program targets these eight body areas: • Chest • Back • Shoulder • Biceps • Triceps • Thighs • Calves • Abdominals
Programs Designed for Strength and Power There are several different programs that can be used to increase strength and power. All involve training loads that exceed 80 percent of the lifter’s 1RM. These programs are not recommended for beginners.
Term to Know Pyramid Training An approach to training that uses progressively heavier weights and fewer reps through successive sets of an exercise. Programs Designed for Strength and Power Pyramid training is often used to improve skill-related fitness. The weight added for each set is determined by increasing the percentage of the lifter’s 1RM for that exercise.
Programs Designed for Strength and Power Pyramid training is best suited for larger muscle groups, such as those in the chest, back, legs, and shoulders. Athletes frequently use this approach to improve their skill-related fitness.
Term to Know Multiple Sets An approach in which the lifter uses the same amount of weight for three to five sets at a training load of 80 to 95 percent of his or her 1RM. Programs Designed for Strength and Power When doingmultiple-sets, the number of reps will range from two to six and should be done to the point of fatigue. A recovery time of two to three minutes is allowed between sets.
Term to Know Negative Reps An approach in which the lifter does the eccentric, or negative phase of an exercise only, using a weight 10 to 15 percent greater than your 1RM. Programs Designed for Strength and Power When doing negative reps, the concentric phase is handled by one or more spotters. Three to four reps per set is the recommended maximum for this exercise.
Programs Designed for Building Muscle Mass Several programs are available to experienced lifters whose primary training goal is to increase muscle mass, also called hypertrophy. All involve training loads of approximately 70 percent of the lifter’s 1RM. These programs are not recommended for beginners.
Term to Know Supersets A training approach in which the lifter alternately performs sets of exercises that train opposing muscles, without resting between sets. Programs Designed for Building Muscle Mass Supersets are an effective way to keep opposite muscles balanced in strength. They are efficient because they allow you to work two muscles at the same time.
Term to Know Compound sets A training approach in which lifters do alternate sets of exercises without allowing for rest between the sets. Programs Designed for Building Muscle Mass Unlike supersets, compound sets train the same muscle group. Compound sets are most effective with large muscle groups and should be done approximately every third workout.
Term to Know Multiple hypertrophy sets A training approach in which lifters use the same amount of weight throughout and to the point of fatigue. Programs Designed for Building Muscle Mass The training load for multiple hypertrophy sets is between 65 and 80 percent of the lifter’s 1RM. The number of reps per set is eight to 10, and the rest period between is from 30 to 90 seconds.