BEEF CATTLE MANAGEMENT Prof. Romziah Sidik, Ph.D. Drh. Dr. Daddy Soegianto nazar. MSc.Drh. Dr. Parijata Westra, MSc.Drh.
BEEF CATTLE • Beef Cattle is a cattle breed which mainly produce meat, • some by products: bone, skin, blood, fat/fatty acids. • Waste product: manure, horn • Food Products: meat, meat ball, humberger, sosis, fried meat, slices meat, nugget. • Industrial products: glue/gum, gellatin, meat & bone meal, leather, soap, candles, etc.
VOCABULARY • BREED: A group of animals trough selection & breeding have come to resemble one another and pass those traits uniformly to their offspring. • Selection can occur either neutrally or by man.
VOCABULARY • BULL: Male, un-neutered • Calf: (Calves): baby • Calve: To have a baby • Color: Some what depend on breed. Any combination: white, black, gray, rad, brown, tan to dark brown. • Cow: Female that has given birth to calf
VOCABULARY • Cud: The portion of food that returns from the first compartment of the stomach to be chewed more thoroughtly • Gestation period: Length of pregnancy, approximately 9 months +1 week • Forbs: Any non-woody broad leafed plant
VOCABULARY • HEIFER: Female before having a calf • LEPPY /DOGGIE: alf that has lost his mother • OX or OXEN: 1-2 neutered male used for draft (pulling) and meat (pl.2 oxes, 3 oxen) • STEER: Male, neutered.
LIVE CYCLE • Cows usually calve first at 2 years of age, then once a year. • Twin are rare. • Birth weight averaged between 60 – 90 pouns/30 -45 kg. • Average market weight and age are 250 kg – 700kg or up to 1 ton. • Species: Bos Taurus & Bos Indicus (Combination of the two), over 250 cattle breed in the world.
CHARACTERISTIC • Bos Taurus do not perspire & more suited to colder climate. • Bos Indicus: cattle perspire, thrive in the tropical heat, more insecta resistant, such to have long drooping ears with lots of folds of skin in order to keep cool. • Some breeds cattle do not havehorns, such as Angus they called Polled.
CARE GIVING COW TO CALF • 1st few day after a calf is born, the cow will hide her baby while she goes for water. • After few days, one cow may baby-sit five or six calves while the others graze and water. • Calves already to be on their own at about 7 months.
WHAT CATTLE EAT? • Cattle are ruminants, a type of animal with four compartment stomachs. They enable eat large amount of grasses. Later, the nutrient bolus will bring back up as a cud to chew and digest while resting. • They have bottom teeth in front, they have no front teeth on top. • They used their tongue to gather the grass & other feed. Ruminant can eat and digest food that humans can not. • Type of feed: range foranges: grasses, forbs, shcrubs, crop residue, agriculture industrialby products or waste products (rice hull, rice straw, corn cobs, corn stubble, corn gluten, beet pulp, fruit processing residue, brewers yeast, cotton seeds, peanut hull, etc.) VOCABULARY
ENVIRONMENT • By proper managed , the grazing cattle cause little damage to the environment & may improve the habitat of wild life.
BEF CATTLE BREED Limousin Polled Hereford
LIMOSIN • Golden red cattle are native to the south central part of France, then imported to US • Health & adaptability • Excellent on feed efficiency • Muscling, some times got calving problems • Daily live weight gain: 1 – 1.2 kg/hd/d
POLLED HEREFORD • US cattle • Modern Hereford minus horns • Polled Hereford were developed from the horned Hereford • White face cattle • LWG 0.0 -1 kg/hd/d
Brahman Angus American White Park Brangus
ANGUS • Scotland nature cattle, then imported to US. • Black color cattle • Good source cattle • Good marbling, high quality beef • LWG: 1 – 1.2 kg/hd/d
BRAHMAN • Originated from Bos Indicus, native India cattle • Exposure to inadequate food supplies, insect pest, parasites, diseases, weather extreames of tropical India, native cattle developed some remarkable adaptation for survival. • Characteristic: they have large hump over the top of the shoulder and neck, their horns which usually curve upward & some times tilted to the rear to the ears., have large excess of skin. • They have developed sweat gland compare to Europe cattle Bos Taurus), they can perspire more freely, they produce an oily secretion from sebaceous glds, which distinctive odor (repelling insect). • LWG: 1 -1.2 kg/hd/d.
BRANGUS • The breed is developed to utilize the superior traits of Angus & Brahman cattle. • Genetics are stabilized at 3/8 Brahman, 5/8 Angus • Brahman: developed disease resistance, overall hardiness and outstanding maternal instincts. • Angus: superior carcass qualities, extreamely functional females which excel in both fertility & milking ability. • Resistant to heat and hight humidity. • Under cool/cold climate, they produce long hair for adequate protection. • The cow is good mothers and calves are usually of medium size at birth.
American White Park • Native cattle in British White bulls, then imported & developed in US. • Small medium white breed with black or red points (ears, nose, eyes). • Cow: 500 kg, bull: 850 -900 kg/hd/d • Predominately polled with 3-5 % horned.
Charolais Chianina Gelbvieh (Gelp-fee) Hereford
Charolais • Originated to west central to Southern France • White color or creamy white color • Pooled breed • BW: 1000-1250 kg. • LWG: 1-1.4kg/hd/d • Heavy muscling, but occasionally calving problem
Salers (Sa'lair) Red Angus
Cow, Calf and Steer Pens No welding required to set up the pen. 2 models of of pens: leg-supported panels or concrete embedded bars. 7" (17.5 cm) spacing between bars. 1 5/8" (4 cm) diameter galvanized horizontal pipes. 1 1/16" (2.7 cm) diameter vertical bars.