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Beef Cattle Management and the Beef Industry

Beef Cattle Management and the Beef Industry

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Beef Cattle Management and the Beef Industry

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  1. Beef Cattle Management and the Beef Industry Chapter 9

  2. Objectives • Describe the physical characteristics of major beef breeds • Explain the relationship between the seasons and beef production • Develop feeding programs for beef cattle • Make a chart of common parasites and diseases that infest and infect beef cattle • Discuss the housing requirements for beef cattle • List three factors that affect the cost of feeder cattle • Give an overview of the beef industry in the US • List four production segments of the beef industry • Discuss issues facing the beef industry • List careers in the beef industry • List organizations that support the beef industry

  3. Vocabulary

  4. Beef Cattle in the US • Cattle production ranks 1st • Accounts for: • 21% of total farm income • 43% of all animal sales receipts • In South Carolina: • 400,000 head of cows and calves • Ranked 38th in the US • In Saluda County: • 22,000 head of cows and calves

  5. SC Ag Watch Manual • -cow/calf state –calves born and raised for months before fattening and slaughter • 2007 – 401,000 cattle and calves and 10,000 beef farms • Beef demand increasing, 64 pounds per person • 6 cattle markets/auctions and 23 other (selling cattle and other animals) • Many different breeds, mostly crossbreds, popular (Angus, Belted Galloway, Limousin, Simmental • Beef Check Off – producers pay $1 per head • Anderson, Laurens, Newberry, Saluda

  6. Breeds With partner, create a powerpoint on your assigned breed. Include physical characteristics, history of breed, registration numbers, pictures, etc. *Make sure information from book in included in presentations…pages 136-143.

  7. Angus • Originated in Scotland • Solid black in color • Naturally polled • Consumer preference led to Certified Angus Beef

  8. Hereford • Originated in Hereford, England • Red with white head, legs, and underline • Horned • Early maturing • “Mothering” breed

  9. Polled Hereford • Developed in Iowa by Warren Gammon • Naturally hornless • Red with white face, legs and underline

  10. Shorthorn • Originated in England • Red; red & white or roan in color • Originally used as a dual purpose breed for meat and milk • Sometimes called the Durham breed

  11. Simmental • Originated in Switzerland • Oldest breed of cattle in the world • Large, powerful breed • Brought to the United States in 1971 • Orange/Yellow and white to black in color

  12. Gelbvieh • Originated in Germany • Red in color • Noted for superior fertility and mothering ability • Tend to be extra fleshy under the throat

  13. Charolais • Originated in France • Traditionally white in color • Long bodied, large cattle • Heavily muscled • Coarse looking

  14. Brahman • Originated in India • Able to survive on very little, poor feed • Insect & heat resistant • Excess skin and large hump on back • White to gray, red to black • Sweat glands

  15. Santa Gertrudis • Developed on the King Ranch in Texas • All Santa Gertrudis are descendants of the bull, Monkey • They were created by crossing shorthorn cows and Brahman bulls

  16. Texas Longhorn • Developed entirely by nature in North America • Known for its long horns • High fertility • Were near extinction in 1927

  17. Beef Production by Seasons • Year-long affair • Cycle begins at calving time • Begins just before grass turns green in spring • Southern states: January • Northern states: March/April • Wean calves in fall • Breeding season: 60-75 days after calving • Some wait for fall calving = higher priced feeder calf market in spring b/c of shortage

  18. Calving • Management is crucial • Live calves are the only product beef producers have to sell • Should occur in clean pastures with enough room for the cow to get away from herd • Producers watch for dystocia • Top 3 reasons?

  19. Calving cont’d • Calves should be standing and nursing within 1-2 hours of birth • Lactating cows need large amounts of high-quality forage • Peak lactation occurs 2-3 months after calving • Spring growth is best grass

  20. Breeding Season • Begin 60-75 days after calving • Should last 60 days • Breed heifers 30 days before mature cows • Why? Heifers need more attention at calving time and gives them an extra month to settle

  21. Gestation • Gestation length = 280 days • Calves should be born at approximately same time each year. Gestation + prebreeding + avg. time before breeding= 370 days 280 days 30 days 60 days

  22. Management • Restrict calving season by introducing and removing bulls in a timely manner • Calving season of 60 days accomplished by leaving the bull for 60 days • Pregnancy check 50-60 days after removing bulls • Sell open cows • 60-day calving season helps keep groups of calves uniform in size, helps with farm labor

  23. Weaning • Takes place in fall when grass production ceases. • Calves should be 205 days • Bulls not castrated, should be at weaning • Horned calves dehorned • Implant those not kept for breeding stock

  24. Weaned calves • Options: • Heifers retained for replacements • Steers or heifers placed in feedlot to prepare for slaughter (fed high-energy diets) • Placed on low-energy, high-forage, economical diet for 1st winter, then placed in feedlot next spring…backgrounding

  25. Feeding Programs • Cattle depend on nutrients from forages • Need a nutritious diet when their demands are highest (late gestation, lactation) • 2 types of forages: • Pasture or range grasses • Stored forages (hay, silage)

  26. Pasture Management • Management varies throughout US • In East producers use: • Intensive rotational grazing system: moving from pasture to pasture over short periods of time • 1-1.5 acres can support cow/calf pr. for an entire year

  27. Stored Forage • Normally fed to dry, pregnant cows in Winter when grasses are dormant • Fed free-choice • Pregnant cows will consume 25-30 lbs of hay per day

  28. Maintaining Body Condition • Bulls: • Fed stored forages when not breeding • May supplement with grain before, during and after breeding season to maintain body condition • Heifers: • Fed a grain ration in addition to stored forage • 5-7 lbs of grain per day • See chart 9-20 page 148

  29. Finishing Cattle • Also called feedlot cattle • Fed a high-grain, high-energy diet containing very little forage • Rapid gain and increases carcass quality are desirable • When first arriving at feedlot, fed low amount of grain, gradually increased until diet is 80-90% grain

  30. Finishing Cattle continued • Feed additives to increase weight gain and improve feed efficiency: • Monensin • Lasalocid • Frame size affects how finishing cattle should be fed • See chart page 148

  31. Parasites, Diseases, and Prevention • Flies • Most common parasite • Face flies • irritate cattle by circling the eyes and feeding from discharge • Horn flies • Feed on blood and cause irritation by congregating on belly, back, and sides • Any irritation reduces the amount of time cattle spend on feeding which reduces gain

  32. Flies continued • Both face and horn flies lay their eggs in fresh manure • How to control: • Face oilers • Dust bags containing fly repellant • Ear tags impregnated with insecticide

  33. Anaplasmosis • Caused by parasite that infects the red blood cells of cattle • Causes lethargy and reduced body condition • To prevent: vaccinate • To treat: isolate infected animals; treat with antibiotics

  34. Coccidiosis • Caused by tiny parasites that infest the lining of the intestine • Causes diarrhea • To prevent: keep area clean

  35. Ringworm • Fungal infection of the skin • Causes round, raised, bald areas • Most common in Winter • Treatment: apply effective solution YES, Humans can catch it from animals!!!

  36. Mange mites • Infect hides of cattle • Treatment: pour-on products or complete immersion • Ivermectin is effective treatment

  37. Stomach Worms • Worm eggs reside on bottom of grass plants • Overgrazing increases chances of infestation • Pasture rotation will interrupt the life cycle • Treatment: oral wormers, ivermectin

  38. Diseases • 3 categories • Respiratory • Reproductive • Gastrointestinal

  39. Shipping Fever • Also called: bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) • Three separate diseases: • Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) • Reduced appetite, nasal discharge, difficulty in breathing • Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) • Similar to IBR, with high temp and severe diarrhea • Parainfluenza 3 (PI3) • Flu-like viral disease, similar to BVD and IBR

  40. Shipping Fever • Treatment: Antibiotics • Prevention: vaccination • Initial doses should be given 2-4 weeks apart with annual boosters

  41. Brucellosis • Characterized by late-term abortions • Some states are free through vaccination programs, testing and removal of infected animals • Infectious to humans (undulent fever) • To prevent: Vaccinate

  42. Leptospirosis “Lepto” • Causes abortions during any stage of pregnancy • To prevent: Vaccinate

  43. Trichomoniasis • Parasitic disease that causes early-term abortions and temporary sterility • Spread by infected bulls • Controlled through use of AI and uninfected bulls

  44. Scours • First gastrointestinal disease to infect newborn calves • Can be caused by bacteria or a virus • Calves may dehydrate, which may be fatal • Prevention: provide clean place to calve • Treatment: electrolyte solution to replace lost fluids • Colostrum is important

  45. Johne’s disease • Most difficult to control • Organism slowly thickens the intestine, preventing absorption of nutrients • Infected animals lose condition while exhibiting watery diarrhea. • NO treatment • Transmission occurs from the feces of infected animals • Infection occurs shortly after birth, but symptoms may not occur for several years • Prevention involves removing calves from dams and raising at different site

  46. Tuberculosis (TB) • Wasting disease, similar to Johne’s • May be present without no outward signs • Infected through contaminated water

  47. Blackleg • is highly infectious, noncontagious disease of cattle. • A major symptom is inflammation of the muscles. • Animals can come into contact with the bacteria through spores from contaminated pastures. • The bacteria may live in the soil and be present for years. • Prevention is very important. • Calves should be vaccinated at two and six months of age.

  48. Housing • Mature Cattle • No elaborate housing needed • Can be wintered in areas without buildings, but thick trees or brush can provide shelter • Keep mud to a minimum • Finishing Cattle • Usually kept in small groups indoor or outdoors

  49. Marketing • Most cattle are marketed as calves or finished cattle for slaughter • Calves can be sold at: • The farm • Feeder calf sales • Teleauctions • Internet auctions • Sold to the highest bidder • Uniformity of size, good condition, and health are important

  50. Why? • Uniformity: So that cattle “finish” at the same time • Condition: want calves slightly thin • Compensatory gain: profitable weight gain by thin cattle • Health: sick calves are not efficient