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The Road to Independence
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  1. The Road to Independence A Mexican Army Arrives in Texas General Cos and 650 soldiers→San Antonio Results: 1)settlers concerned 2) Committees of safety 3)Committees of correspondence

  2. The Road to Independence • Gonzales-Lexington of Texas (similar to the 1st battle of the American Revolution) • 1st conflict October 2, 1835 • Colonel Ugartechea ordered Gonzales to surrender a cannon →they refused and buried it until reinforcements arrived →dug it up • Painted Come and Take it on a white flag • When Mex. troops arrived, TX commander was Colonel John H. Moore & men forced Mex. troops to retreat toward San Antonio

  3. The Road to Independence On to San Antonio! • October 9, 1835 -120 Texans surprise the garrison at Goliad Results: Mexican troops surrender & the only large Mex. force left was in San Antonio(Cos) Stephen F. Austin commanded the Army of the People, 300 Texans @ Gonzales, who gathered to fight Cos & 750 Mex. troops in San Antonio As they marched, 100 more joined the ranks Texans lay siege to the city-maybe Cos will run out of supplies

  4. The Road to Independence Peace Party Prevails at the Consultation The Consultation met November 3, 1835in San Felipe (printing press) while the Texans camped near San Antonio War Party favored declaration of independence from Mexico Peace Party agreed in opposing Santa Anna but not independence instead the fight was for the Mexican Constitution of 1824 & won the vote November 7, 1835 they adopted the “Declaration of the People of Texas in General Convention Assembled”-1. Loyalty to Mexico 2. Support the Mexican Constitution of 1824 3. Oppose Santa Anna 4.Support for anyone who was against Santa Anna 5. Land to anyone who helped

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  6. The Road to Independence A Provisional Government Begins Consultation also created a provisional government Included: • Governor (Henry Smith) & lieutenant governor( James Robinson) both War Party & a general council w/ 1 rep from each municipality ( mostly Peace Party) • Create a regular army, commanded by Sam Houston, but not volunteers • Appointed Commissioners Stephen F. Austin, William Wharton & Branch Archer to represent Texas in the U.S. (troops, $ and supplies)

  7. The Road to Independence The Grass Fight • November 25, 1835- S.F. Austin left his command in San Antonio for the U.S. to ask for aid • Edward Burleson took over command of the volunteers, shortly after……. • Erastus “Deaf” Smith reported that the Mex. Calvary and mule train were headed to San Antonio (Texans thought “silver train”) so they attacked only to find grass to feed Cos’s Calvary horses • No real activity in Oct & Nov so many volunteers went home & in early Dec. the siege was called off

  8. The Road to Independence

  9. The Road to Independence The Assault on San Antonio (Siege at Bexar) • Burleson was preparing to leave San Antonio when he got word that Cos’s army was weak and could not win against attack • Ben Milam & an army were marching towards San Antonio and believed it was disastrous not to attack Cos “Who will go with old Ben Milam into San Antonio?” w/ 300 volunteers he divided his group into 2 columns- Milam led one and Frank W. Johnson led the other • December 5 fighting began and lasted 4 days • Milam had an advantage b/c Cos’s army was only equipped to fight in open battlefields

  10. The Road to Independence • On the 3rd day Milam was killed and Johnson took over full command • Mexican forces were overpowered and were driven to the abandoned mission-ALAMO • December 9, 1835 Cos asked for surrender terms and promised to never fight the colonists again and he would support the Mexican Constitution of 1824-they returned to Mexico • The Capture of San Antonio was significant b/c: • 400 Texans beat 1000 Mex Soldiers • Texas army had Goliad and the Alamo • Texas was clear of Mexican troops so most volunteers returned home

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  12. The Road to Independence Tejanos and African Americans Join the Fight Texas army included by Captain Juan N. Seguin • A free African American,Hendrick Arnold, guided Milam’s column in battle

  13. The Road to Independence The Provisional Government • While San Antonio was in battle the provisional government carried on duties of the Permanent Council, a group formed b4 the Consultation • Created a post office, made plans for an army and navy and appealed to the US for aid • Governor Henry Smith and the council quarreled • In December they voted to hold a convention on March 1836-Smith vetoed it but the council overrode and passed the proposal • They fought over capturing the town of Matamoros. Smith opposed it but the council approved it RESULTING in a near breakdown in government-They should have been preparing to fight Santa Anna

  14. The Road to Independence Santa Anna Crosses Into Texas • In Dec. the Council called for a convention in March 1836-Texans hoped that Santa Anna would not arrive until after -They were wrong • Santa Anna crossed the Rio Grande in early Feb. and arrived in San Antonio on Feb 23rd • Texans that remained in San Antonio moved into the ALAMO

  15. The Road to Independence The Convention of 1836 Declares Independence • Delegates(males) began arriving at Washington-on-the-Brazos in late Feb • Poor conditions-poorly constructed cabins, tree stumps everywhere, no library, no printing press & no convention hall • March 1, 1836-elected Richard Ellis as chairman and H.S. Kimble as secretary • A committee was formed to write a declaration of independence from Mexico written by George D. Childress

  16. The Road to Independence Texas D of C was similar to the U.S. D of C STATED: • The gov’t of Santa Anna has violated the liberties guaranteed under the Mex. Constitution of 1824 • Deprived of Freedom of religion, trial by jury, bear arms and right to petition the gov’t • No public school system • Texans protests were met with force • MARCH 2, 1836-DECLARATION ADOPTED (Texas Independence Day)

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  18. The Road to Independence The Delegates Write a Constitution • MARCH 16, 1836-completed and ratified • Included: 3 Branches of Gov’t • Executive (chief governing officer, president) powers to carry out duties entrusted to him • Legislative (lawmaking) • Judicial (courts) • Bill of Rights-freedoms of speech, press, religion, trial by jury and other civil rights • Slavery legal-free blacks were not allowed to live in Texas

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  20. The Road to Independence Ad Interim Gov’t Takes Control • b/c Mex. troops were in TX- no elections • Sooo, the conventions last act-select officers for an ad interim gov’t • David G. Burnet -ad interim president • Sam Houston -commander in chief of the army (regulars and volunteers)

  21. The Road to Independence A Convention Diary • Colonel William F. Gray -kept diary of the convention proceedings • Please read on pages 217 & 218 in the textbook

  22. The Road to Independence Santa Anna Advances • March 17 convention adjourns • Alamo fell 2 days before • Santa Anna was headed to Washington-on-the-Brazos • The delegates scattered in all directions