Thomas Jefferson’s Presidency 1801-1809
Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson -- author of the Declaration of Independence and the Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom, third president of the United States, and founder of the University of Virginia -- voiced the aspirations of a new America as no other individual of his era. As public official, historian, philosopher, and plantation owner, he served his country for over five decades.
The Election of 1800 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sQmtEc-6E-Y&feature=related
The Beginning • March 4, 1801 • Thomas Jefferson is the first President inaugurated in the new capital city of Washington D.C. • He delivers his first inaugural address. This address outlines what he feels are the essential principles of government.
First Inaugural Address • Essential Principles of Government • “equal and exact justice to all men” • “peace, commerce, and honest friendship with all nations” • “the support of state governments” • “the preservation of general government” • punishment for those who choose to revolt • compliance with the decisions of the majority
First Inaugural Address • Essential Principles of Government Cont… • “a well disciplined militia” • honest payment of debts • maintaining a sound economy • proper distribution of information • freedom of religion • freedom of the press
Barbary Wars • May 1801 • Pasha of Tripoli declares war with the United States because President Jefferson refused to make the immediate payment of $225,000 and the annual payment of $25,000. • On the 20th Jefferson sent the first naval fleet to the area. • The ships included the President, Philadelphia, Essex and Enterprise. Map of the Barbary Wars Original Map can be found at: http://www.mariner.org/usnavy/caption_pages/06a_BarbaryWars.htm
Barbary Wars • In his first annual message, Jefferson addresses the Barbary Wars. • He justifies his actions of sending a naval fleet to the Mediterranean. • He also outlines the reasons the Pasha of Tripoli declared war with the United States. Map of Tripoli Original map can be found at: http://historic-cities.huji.ac.il/libya/tripoli/tripoli.html
Barbary Wars • 1803 – Jefferson faces much criticism for his decisions made regarding the war • The Philadelphia runs aground in the Tripoli Harbor and it crew and captain are taken captive • He is forced to make several command changes. • 1801- Commodore Richard Dale • 1802 – Commodore Richard Morris • 1803 – Commodore Edward Preble Nautical Map of Tripoli Original map can be found at: http://historic-cities.huji.ac.il/libya/tripoli/maps/roux_1764_pl_55.html
Realizing that there was no way to recapture the Philadelphia, Commodore Preble devises a plan to destroy the ship February 4, 1804 the Philadelphia was destroyed. August 3, 1804 the first attack against Tripoli took place when the Constitution’s guns fired on the city. September 1804 – the final battle took place in the Tripoli Harbor September 1804 – Commodore Barron arrived with backup for Commodore Preble Commodore Barron, who is senior in rank to Preble, continued the blockade and started looking for a new way to peace Shortly after Commodore Barron arrive, Commodore Preble retired June 4, 1805 after the Pasha of Tripoli had been replaced, a treaty was made with the United States and the prisoners were released. Barbary Wars
History Behind the Barbary Wars http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sB5BNDyGq1c&feature=related
Louisiana Purchase • April 30, 1803 • Robert Livingston & James Monroe signed the Louisiana Purchase Treaty in Paris • The United States paid $15 million for the land, roughly 4 cents per acre • The purchase added 828,000 square miles of land west of the Mississippi to the United States • July 4 the Louisiana Purchase is publicly announced Original treaty can be found at: http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/american_originals_iv/sections/louisiana_purchase_treaty.html
Maps of the Louisiana Purchase The original maps can be found at: http://www.washington.edu/uwired/outreach/cspn/hstaa432/lesson_4/louisiana.html
Lewis and Clark Expedition • January 18, 1803 • Jefferson asks Congress for funds to explore the land west of the Mississippi • His goal is to find a water route to the Pacific • May 1804 • Meriwether Lewis and William Clark depart on the expedition Map of Lewis and Clark’s Route Original map can be found at: http://www.pbs.org/lewisandclark/archive/maptrack_b.html
Lewis and Clark Expedition • January 18, 1803 • Jefferson sends a secret message to congress regarding the Lewis and Clark Expedition • In this message Jefferson asks for permission to establish trading with the Indians • The original message can be found at: http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=17
The Louisiana Purchase http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=THXjdVcQ4Is
Second Inaugural Address • Delivered on March 4, 1805 • Stresses the importance of American neutrality in matters of foreign affairs • Outlines the Louisiana Purchase and the processes by which the original inhabitants of the land will become citizens of the United States • Stresses the importance of harmony amongst all inhabitants of America
Embargo Act of 1807 • 1803 - Renewal of the Napoleonic Wars between France and Great Britain • America was once again trapped between the two nations • Jefferson wanting to stay neutral proposed an embargo on all foreign trade • This was highly unsuccessful and devastated the American Economy • The Non-Intercourse Act of 1809 was put in place to repeal the unsuccessful Embargo Act
2nd Term in Office His second term, a time when he encountered more difficulties on both the domestic and foreign fronts, is most remembered for his efforts to maintain neutrality in the midst of the conflict between Britain and France; his efforts did not avert war with Britain that would eventually come in 1812.
Life after the Presidency Jefferson was succeeded as president in 1809 by his friend James Madison, and during the last seventeen years of his life, he remained at Monticello. During this period, he sold his collection of books to the government to form the nucleus of the Library of Congress. Jefferson embarked on his last great public service at the age of seventy-six, with the founding of the University of Virginia. He spearheaded the legislative campaign for its charter, secured its location, designed its buildings, planned its curriculum, and served as the first rector.
Jefferson’s Death Jefferson died on July 4, 1826, just hours before his close friend John Adams, on the fiftieth anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence.