Part One: Manifest Destiny • Manifest Destiny • The idea the Americans would expand to the Pacific Ocean started with Thomas Jefferson (Lewis and Clark expedition) • Americans believed their movement westward and southward was destined and ordained by God • An editor of a newspaper called it “manifest destiny” • Westward movement was obvious What do you see in the picture?
The Frontier Draws Settlers • The Panic of 1837convinced people that they were better off with a fresh start in the West • Tons of land out west • Farming and mining for gold!!
Trails to the West • Santa Fe Trail- 780 miles from Independence, Missouri to Santa Fe, New Mexico • Oregon Trail- Started in Independence, Missouri and ended in Portland, Oregon • Fertile soil, lots of rainfall • Traveled in wooden-wheeled Conestoga wagons • Walked, and pushed handcarts • Trip took months, many died of disease • Caravans provided protection against Indian attacks and loneliness • By 1844, about 4,000 Americans settled in Oregon
Mormon Movement • Utah • Led by Brigham Young • Mormons migrated across the Great Plains and the Rocky Mountains to establish the colony of New Zion on the shore of the Great Salt Lake. • Migrated due to religious persecution • Prospered as farmers and traders • Successful in irrigating desert region
California • In 1848, workers at John Sutter’s sawmill found flecks of gold in the American River. • 1848: population around 14,000 • 1849: population around 100,000 • 1852: population around 200,000 • California Gold Rush- fortune seekers known as “forty-niners” fled to the area in search of gold • Most were unmarried men (only 5% of the population were women, 10% Chinese) • Brought commercial prosperity and an increase in gold findings elsewhere. (http://telly.com/A1XZE)
Mexico offered land grants to Americans settlers, but cultural conflicts eventually led to Texas rebelling against the Mexican government to gain its independence.
In the 1820s, Mexico encouraged Americans settlers to move into Texas • Mexican government gave land grants: • To prevent border violations by horse thieves and protect against Indian attacks • Americans pledged to obey Mexican laws and observed Roman Catholicism • Stephen Austin– took the first group of 300 families of American settlers to Texas
Tension between Mexico and Americans living in TX grew over cultural differences and slavery • Many southerners moving in and bringing slaves • Mexico abolished slavery in 1824 • Mexico seals its borders in 1830 • Austin wanted greater self-government for Texas but was unsuccessful • Mexican President, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna imprisoned Austin for inciting revolution
The Alamo • (1836) –Spanish mission in San Antonio used as a fort • Attacked by Santa Anna’s Mexican army • All 187 Texan defenders of the Alamo were killed by the Mexican army • William Travis –commander of Texas forces at the Alamo • Jim Bowie -famous gambler known for side knives • Davy Crockett –famous woodsman from Tennessee • “Remember the Alamo!”= war cry for Texans fighting for independence http://www.history.com/shows/america-the-story-of-us/videos/the-alamo)
March 2, 1836- Texans declare their independence from Mexico • -1845- Texas joins the Union
California tried to rebel against Mexico but is unsuccessful • President James K. Polk sent John Slidell to Mexico to purchase California but Mexico refuses • Rebels declared their independence from Mexico • War started with Mexico over the southern border of Texas • Mexican troops crossed the Rio Grande and attacked US forces that were positioned there led by Gen. Zachary Taylor • War was declared May 1846 • Many Americans supported war due to the belief in Manifest Destiny • Encouraged economic opportunities and land for farming
America Gains the Spoils of War • The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo –officially ended the Mexican-American War • Mexico agreed to the Rio Grande as the southern border of Texas • Mexican Cession –California, New Mexico, and Utah Territories ceded from Mexico to the U.S. • Gadsden Purchase established the current boundaries of the lower 48 states • U.S. paid Mexico $15 million for the Mexican Cession
Part Two: Pre-Civil War Sectionalism The issue of slavery dominated U.S. politics in the 1850s.
Differences Between North and South North South • Economy based on manufacturing and industrialization • Railroad construction very common • Urbanization (growth of cities) • Immigration from European countries was common • Economy based on agriculture and slavery –cotton was the major cash crop (King Cotton) • Primarily a rural region of plantations and small farms • Lack of railroads and industry • No significant European immigration to the South
STOP AND THINK! • How did the economy in the North differ from that in the South?
Extension of slavery- Biggest problem • North and West thought it was wrong • South in favor because of cotton • South thought that the North and West were against the extension of slavery because they wanted to decrease the power of the South
STOP AND THINK!!! • What impact did the growth of cotton have on the system of slavery?
Missouri Compromise • Missouri applied for statehood as a slave state • At this time, the US had 10 slave state and 10 free states • Under the leadership of Henry Clay • Maine was admitted as a free state and Missouri as a slave state- keeps the balance • Missouri Compromise drew a line through the Louisiana Purchase along the 36th parallel • Slavery allowed below the line, but not above (except for Missouri) • This was an attempt to resolve the issue of slavery in the western territory
STOP AND THINK! • How did the Missouri Compromise temporarily settle the debate over slavery? • How did the Missouri Compromise promote Sectionalism?
Slavery in the Territories • Wilmot Proviso –def. –plan to ban slavery from expanding into lands won from Mexico during the Mexican War • Sparked sectional conflict over slavery issue –North vs. South • California applied for statehood as a free state • Gold Rush of 1849 led to an explosion in California’s population • Upset Southerners –demanded that slavery be allowed to expand West
The Compromise of 1850 • Henry Clay (aka “The Great Compromiser”) -wanted to avoid conflict between North and South, developed a compromise • California = free state • New Mexico and Utah territories would use popular sovereignty to decide slavery issue • Popular sovereignty– the residents of a territory would vote for or against slavery
New Mexico and Texas border dispute settled in favor of New Mexico, but Texas received debts paid by federal government • Slave trade in Washington D.C. was abolished • Very popular in the North, very controversial in the South • New Fugitive Slave Law passed in order to return escaped slaves to plantations in the South • Very popular in the South, very controversial in the North
Protest, Resistance, and Violence • Main Idea: Proslavery factions in the South and antislavery factions in the North disagreed over the treatment of fugitive slaves and the spread of slavery to the territories. This resulted in increased sectionalism between the regions.
Fugitive Slave Law • Northerners angered by the new Fugitive Slave Law-part of the Compromise of 1850 • Runaway slaves could NOT testify in court and no trial by jury • Helping an escaped slave resulted in fines and jail time
The Underground Railroad • The Underground Railroad was a secret network of abolitionists who would help fugitive slaves escape to the North and Canada • Harriet Tubman–former slave and “conductor” on the underground railroad • Made 19 trips and helped 300 people to freedom • Nicknamed “Moses” of her people for her efforts http://www.history.com/shows/america-the-story-of-us/videos/harriet-tubman-and-the-underground-railroad)
Abolitionism • Movement to end slavery • William Lloyd Garrison- publisher of the Liberator and abolitionist newspaper • Demanded immediate emancipation (freeing of slaves) with no payment to slaveholders • Frederick Douglass- ex-slave, speaks publicly about his experience as a slave • Harriet Beecher Stowe • Wrote “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” (1852) • Strong reactions from the North and South • Message: Slavery not just a political and economic issue but is now a moral issue
Tensions in Kansas • Kansas-Nebraska Act • 1854 –Stephen Douglas’plan to organize territories in the West • Popular sovereignty-settlers in the territories would vote for or against slavery in both Kansas and Nebraska • Repealed the Missouri Compromise–Kansas and Nebraska were both north of the 36 30’ parallel line (slavery had been banned North of that line) • Sectional tensions exploded –Northerners resented the idea that slavery could expand to lands where slavery had been banned • Led to the formation of the Republican Party
“Bleeding Kansas” • Settlers poured in from the North and South- Kansas ready to become a state • Thousands of people from slave state Missouri crossed into Kansas and voted illegally for slavery to be allowed • Violence raged through Kansas • Some 200 people were killed
Stop and think! • Why was popular sovereignty controversial? • Why did Kansas become a center of controversy over the issue of slavery?
The Birth of the Republican Party Main Idea – In the mid-1850s, the issue of slavery and other factors split political parties and led to the birth of new ones, including the Republican Party.
New Political Parties • Whig Party–collapsed by 1854 due to conflicts over slavery • Know Nothing Party (American Party) –established 1854 • Members believed in nativism–def. –favoring of native-born Americans over immigrants • anti-immigrant and anti-Catholic
Republican Party • Established in1854 • Opposed to the expansion of slavery into western territories • Supported by many people in the North as a result of “Bleeding Kansas”
Slavery and Secession Main Idea –A series of controversial events heightened the sectional conflict that brought the nation to the brink of civil war.
Dred Scott v. Sandford • Dred Scott Decision(1857) • Background: Dred Scott –African American slave from Missouri who sued for his freedom because his master had moved him to the free state of Illinois • Roger B. Taney(Chief Justice) -ruled that African Americans were not citizens • Missouri Compromise line was unconstitutional because it violated property rights • Sectionalism exploded –decision hated by North and cheered by South (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YM7onFP9vUQ)
Stop and think! • What was the significance of the Dred Scott decision?
Lincoln-Douglas Debates • (1858) • Lincoln challenged Douglas to a series of debates on slavery in the western territories as part of their senate race in 1858 • Douglas won the senate race, but Lincoln became known throughout the North as a possible presidential candidate in 1860 • Douglas believed in popular sovereignty and that slavery would pass away on its own
John Brown’s Raid on Harpers Ferry • (1859) • John Brown –abolitionist who wanted to lead a slave revolt in the South • Harpers Ferry –federal armory and arsenal • Brown’s goal was to capture weapons for slaves and lead revolt • John Brown was captured and hanged for treason • Sectionalism between North and South exploded • In the South, John Brown was viewed as an evil murderer • In the North, some people viewed Brown as a heroic martyr, others agreed with his views but thought that he was too radical in his actions
Election of 1860 • Candidates • Abraham Lincoln(Republican) • Stephen Douglas(Northern Democrat) • John C. Breckenridge(Southern Democrat) • John Bell(Constitutional Union Party)