Describe the inventions of Thomas Edison.
So you like to jam to your tunes? From to….. Say thank you Thomas Edison!!
So you want to chill & kick with a movie? From to… Say thank you Thomas Edison!!
So you like light? Just say thank you to Thomas Edison!!
I. New Inventions (late 1800’s, early 1900’s) • Light Bulb • Phonograph (record player) C. Kinetoscope (Motion Picture)
II. Railroads Impact on the Nation • Encouraged new innovation • Refrigerated railcars (ice cream on a train!!) • Telegraph system (like texting old school train style) • Airbrakes (stops better, smoother, saves your life) • Established time zones (We are EST…you are halfway through your day…your cali peeps are in homeroom saying the pledge!) • Made travel between towns easier • Transports large amounts of goods quickly & efficiently (means cheaper prices for you!! Also, Lincoln’s secret weapon for this reason).
II. Railroads Impact on the Nation continued… • Businesses could obtain raw materials & sell to large numbers of people • Led to mass production (industrialization) • Helped settle the west • Railroad companies sold the fertile land cheaply • Cattle ranchers and farmers used the plains to graze their herds and grow their crops, then used railroad to ship their products.
III. Transcontinental Railroad Central Pacific Union Pacific Owned by Jay Gould Owned by Cornelius Vanderbilt Chinese Immigrant Irish Immigrants Sacramento, CA Omaha, NE Promontory Point, UT May 10, 1869
RESULTS of theTranscontinental Railroad 3 Part Library video series Industrialization and Urbanization video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=21bQiTxUar4
RESULTS of theTranscontinental Railroad • Transporting goods was easier • Linked new markets • Unified the nation
Also led to Big Business & America’s Monopolies Gould & Vanderbilt were among a group of wealthy businessmen called ROBBER BARONS Goals of Robber Barons • Eliminate Competition • Create a monopoly ( just like the game…total control of an industry)
The Growth of Big Business
Robber Barons? Drained the country of its natural resources Persuaded officials to interpret laws in their favor Paid their workers meager wages Workers forced to work in dangerous and unhealthy conditions Swindled the poor Charged unfair prices Used Trusts & Monopolies to destroy other competitors Captains of Industry? Increased the supply of goods by building factories Provided jobs that allowed Americans to buy their goods Founded and funded museums, libraries, and universities Innovations & businesses allowed the US economy to grow Philanthropy (giving $ to charity) Business Leaders of the Late 1800s
Andrew Carnegie • Emigrated to the U.S. in 1848; used money earned as superintendent of PA railroad to invest in steel mills • Established Carnegie Steel Company, drove competitors out of business, and soon controlled the entire steel industry • Bought the iron ore mines, mills, shipping and rail lines to transport his steel products to market • Philanthropist: gave away $350 million • “Gospel of wealth”: free to make money and should give it away
Born to life of leisure Worked to get European investors for business growth Loaned money to US Government Kept it all Least amount of $$ of robber barons JP Morgan
Cornelius Vanderbilt • Converted shipping empire to the new and upcoming railroad system • When he died at 84 yrs worth 100 Million • Left One million to Vanderbilt University • Remnants of railroad system now part of AMTRAK • Biltmore estate was his family’s “summer” home
The Standard Oil TrustI would rather earn 1% off a 100 people's efforts than 100% of my own efforts. John D. Rockefeller • Edwin L. Drake struck oil in Titusville, PA in 1858. • John D. Rockefeller set up a refinery in Ohio in 1863. • He undersold his competitors and bought them out. • In 1882 the owners of Standard Oil and other companies combined their operations, appointing nine trustees. Rockefeller controlled the trust • Forty companies joined the trust and controlled the nations oil, limiting competition • 1890 Congress passed the Sherman Antitrust Act, outlawing any combination of companies that restrained commerce; proved ineffective for 15 years.
What Is Progress? What power do people have when the govt makes laws you don’t agree with? • Initiative-process in which citizens put a proposed new law directly on the ballot (U want a law….take the initiative & put it on the ballot!!) Ex. MADD (mothers against drunk driving) drunk driving laws, Hate Crime laws…public initiatives • Referendum-process in which citizens can approve or reject a law passed by a legislature (U don’t like a law your govt passed? You be the ref & decide!) Ex. Gay marriage in California, Legalizing marijuana in Cali (failed) • Recall-voters can remove elected officials from office (you don’t like your rep…recall their booty out of office) Ex. Governor Gray Davis in Cali got recalled & in the interim election …the terminator gets elected.
The Growing Work Force • 14 million immigrants between 1860 and 1900 • Contract Labor Act, 1864 • 8 to 9 million moved to the cities • Every family member worked; little relief for the poor
Factory Work • Boring, repetitive work in dangerous working conditions (low light, no ventilation, crowded) for low pay & long hours • Piecework: fixed amount for each finished piece produced • Frederick Winslow Taylor increased efficiency, The Principles of Scientific Management • Division of Labor: workers performed one small task, over and over • Remember: Carnegie gave how many days off a year? How many hours a day?
Families Working in the Factories….Working Women and Children • Women operated simple machines and had no chance to advance • Children made up more than 5 % of the labor force • Both Parents worked as well as children (stunted in body and mind) • Jacob Riis attacked child labor in Children of the Poor
Gulf Between Rich and Poor • Collective Bargaining: negotiating as a group for higher wages & better working conditions • Socialism: economic and political philosophy that favors public or social control of property and income, not private control
Rise of Labor Unions • National Trades Union, 1834; ended with Panic of 1837 • National Labor Union, 1866; failed during a depression • Knights of Labor, 1869; men, women, skilled and unskilled; Terence Powderly wanted equal pay, 8 hour day, end to child labor; disappeared by 1890s • American Federation of Labor, 1886; Samuel Gompers wanted skilled workers only; supported collective bargaining, negotiation between labor and employers, wanted shorter hours & better pay…women & afams not included. • The Wobblies (Industrial Workers of the World), many Socialists, radical union of unskilled workers such as miners, lumbermen, migrant farm workers, textile workers
Reaction of Employers • Feared unions • Tactics to stop unions 1. Forbade union meetings 2. Fired union organizers 3. “Yellow dog” contracts – promised never to join a union 4. Refused collective bargaining 5. Refused to recognize unions as workers’ representatives
Strikes Rock the Nation • Haymarket Riot, 1886, at Chicago’s McCormick reaper factory; bomb killed seven policemen, gunfire killed dozens. Eight anarchists, radicals who oppose all government, were tried for conspiracy to commit murder. • Pullman, 1894, Eugene V. Debs called for a boycott of Pullman cars. Disrupted western railroad traffic. Federal troops sent to see that mail got through. Set pattern for the employers to get court orders against unions. EFFECT: Government opposition limited union gains for more than 30 years
The Gilded Age 1 IMMIGRATION, AND URBAN LIFE
THE GILDED AGE • The Period between 1877–1900 is known as “The Gilded Age” • Gilded means covered in a thin layer of gold • Term first used by American writer Mark Twain • During the Gilded Age, America‘s big businesses prospered • Beneath this layer of prosperity were the problems of poverty, discrimination and corruption
POLITICS and ECONOMICSIN THE GILDED AGE • During the late 1800s, big business attempted to dominated American economics and politics • Laissez-Faire economics • Spoils system/patronage-based politics
PEOPLE ON THE MOVE!!! • During the late 1800s and early 1900s, immigrants from around the world came to the United States in search of a better life. Immigration to the United States by Region, 1871–1920
The Immigrant Experience • Most immigrants still came from Europe • Crossed the Atlantic Ocean and arrived in New York- The Golden Door • 1-3 weeks on a ship • Most traveled in steerage • Crowded lower berths • Think Leo in Titanic! • Almost 70% arrived through New York • Most settled with others of same ethnicity • Neighborhoods of ethnic groups developed in Boston, New York, Philadelphia… Why were the immigrants resented? • They work for lower pay during strikes • They lived in cities and were highly visible.
The Immigrant Experience • Path of acceptance was more difficult for Asians • Most arrived in San Francisco, Angel Island • The Golden Gate • After the gold rush, Chinese immigrants worked as agricultural laborers, on railroad construction crews throughout the West, and in low-paying industrial jobs. • Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 • This Act virtually ended Chinese immigration for nearly a century • Asian Segregation of Asian children in schools in 1906 • Japanese complained of mistreatment • “The Gentlemen’s Agreement” was passed in 1907 ending segregation
The Chinese Question • Harper’s Weekly
THE CHALLENGE OF THE CITIES • The arrival of millions of new residents brought progress, poverty, and political changes to American cities. State Street, Chicago, 1905
How Cities Grew • Suburbs – residential communities • People that could afford it moved out and took horse drawn carriages in • Motorized Transportation • Subways, trolley cars, elevated trains (El), automobile • Growing Upward • Skyscrapers • Chicago’s Home Insurance Company building was the first 10 story building
From Farms to Cities • Women were needed less • New Machines replaced laborers • 1880-1910 population on farms fell from 72 to 54 percent • African Americans migrated north New York by George Bellows
Urban Living Conditions • Tenements • Speculators built tenements and packed many people in them • Created slums • Go to : http://www.history.com/videos/dead-rabbit-gang-battles-bowery-boys • Slum Conditions • Poverty, overcrowding, neglect, fire danger • Ghettos • Slums where one ethnic or racial group dominated • Restrictive covenants – don’t let certain people buy land • Jacob Riis • worked to improve the lives of the urban poor • NY passed first laws to improve tenements b/c of Riis
The Results of City Growth Rise of Political Bosses • Political Machine • Unofficial city organization designed to keep a particular party in power • Usually headed by a powerful “boss” • “Boss” would handpick candidates for local office in return for economic favors • Supported by immigrants and poor people • Graft – using one’s job to gain profits • William “Boss” Tweed • Controlled Tammany Hall in New York • Ran New York’s Democratic Party
Ideas for Reform • The desire to improve conditions in American cities led to the formation of new reform groups • Charity Organization Movement • Making charity scientific (like welfare system) • Kept details of who received help so that they knew who was worthy of help or not • Many expected immigrant to adopt American middle class standards of living • The Social Gospel movement • Applied religious principles of charity and justice for the poor • Supported labor reforms and improved living conditions • Settlement Movement (Jane Addams/Ellen Gates Starr) • Created “settlement houses” to offer social services and to help the poor, HULL HOUSE
African-Americans in the Progressive Era • Plessy vs. Ferguson- Separate, but equal is legal. • NAACP: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People • Purpose: To ensure economic, social, political and educational equality for minority groups in America. • Go through the legal system (courts) to make change