forensic science n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Forensic Science PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Forensic Science

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 36

Forensic Science - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 189 Views
  • Uploaded on

Forensic Science. Introduction & Expectations. FORENSIC SCIENCE. Supply list Composition Notebook Writing Utensil (Pen or Pencil) Lab Fee – 20.00. FORENSIC SCIENCE. CLASS EXPECTAITONS Bring all necessary supplies to class Participate in class Do your part in lab. FORENSIC SCIENCE.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Forensic Science' - tania


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
forensic science

Forensic Science

Introduction

&

Expectations

forensic science1
FORENSIC SCIENCE

Supply list

  • Composition Notebook
  • Writing Utensil (Pen or Pencil)
  • Lab Fee – 20.00
forensic science2
FORENSIC SCIENCE

CLASS EXPECTAITONS

  • Bring all necessary supplies to class
  • Participate in class
  • Do your part in lab
forensic science3
FORENSIC SCIENCE

What is Forensic Science?

-the application of science to the criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in a criminal justice system

TV show involving Forensic Science

forensic science4
FORENSIC SCIENCE

Disciplines that are included in Forensic Science

  • Criminalistics
  • Engineering Science
  • General Science
  • Jurisprudence
  • Odontology
  • Pathology/Biology
forensic science5
FORENSIC SCIENCE

Disciplines that are included in Forensic Science

  • Physical Anthropology
  • Psychiatry and Behavioral Science
  • Questioned Documents
  • Toxicology

This is not a exclusive list, but does include the most common disciplines involved.

forensic science6
FORENSIC SCIENCE

History and Development of Forensic Science

Early Development

  • Earliest record of applying forensic science to solve a crime come from a 3rd century China

Initial Scientific Advances

  • 1775 – Development of test for arsenic poisoning
  • 1798 – A Treatise on Forensic Medicine and Public Health
history and development forensic science
History and Development:Forensic Science
  • 1806 – More refined method of Arsenic testing
  • 1814 – Mathieu Orfila, father of modern forensic toxicology
    • Published book on toxicology
  • 1828 – William Nichol invented polarizing microscope
history and development forensic science1
History and Development:Forensic Science

Late Nineteenth-Century Progress

  • Public officials beginning to apply knowledge from all scientific disciplines to the solving of crimes
  • Anthropology and morphology were 1st used
history and development forensic science2
History and Development:Forensic Science

1879 Alphonse Bertillon

  • The first system of personal identification was called anthropometry.
  • It distinguished one individual from another based on a series of measurements
history and development forensic science3
History and Development:Forensic Science
  • 1892 – first use of fingerprints to identification
  • Sherlock Holmes – Sir Arthur Conan Doyle heavily influenced by science articles of the day
history and development forensic science4
History and Development:Forensic Science

Twentieth Century Breakthroughs

1901 – Karl landsteiner discovered blood typing

1915 – Leone lattes – created a way to blood type dried blood

1910 – Albert S Osborn “Questioned Documents”

history and development forensic science5
History and Development:Forensic Science

Edward Locard

  • 1910 convinced Lyons Police department to give him an attic to do forensic work.
  • Founder of Institute of Criminalistics
  • Locard Exchange Principle – When 2 objects come in contact with each other, a cross-transfer of materials occurs
history and development forensic science6
History and Development:Forensic Science
  • Army Colonel Calvin Goddard – allowed investigators to determine whether a particular gun has fired a bullet by comparing the bullet with one that has been test fired
history and development forensic science7
History and Development:Forensic Science

Modern Scientific Advances

  • DNA typing
  • More exact than fingerprints
  • Almost fool proof
review
REVIEW
  • Forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in a criminal justice system
  • The first system of personal identification was called anthropometry. It distinguished one individual from another based on a series of measurements
review1
REVIEW
  • Forensic science owes its origins to individuals such as Bertillon Galton, Lattes, Goddard, Osborn, and Locard, who developed the principles and techniques needed to identify or compare physical evidence
  • Locard Exchange Principle states when two objects come in contact with each other, a cross-transfer of materials occurs
vocabulary
VOCABULARY
  • Locard exchange principle
crime laboratories
CRIME LABORATORIES

History of Crime Labs in the United States

  • 1923- Los Angeles Police Department – Oldest Forensic Lab
  • 1932 – FBI – J. Edgar Hoover
  • 4 major federal crime laboratories
    • FBI
    • DEA
    • Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco Firearms and Explosives
    • The US Postal Inspection Service
  • Don’t have state boundaries
services of the crime lab
SERVICES OF THE CRIME LAB

Physical Science Unit

  • Applies principles and techniques of chemistry, Physics, and geology to the identification and comparison of crime-scene evidence.
  • Staffed by criminalists who have expertise to use chemical test and modern analytical instrumentations
  • Analyze drugs, glass, paint, explosives, and soil
services of the crime lab1
SERVICES OF THE CRIME LAB

Biological Unit

  • Staffed with biologist and biochemists
  • Identify and perform DNA profiling on dried blood stains and other fluids, compare hair and fibers
services of the crime lab2
SERVICES OF THE CRIME LAB

Firearms Unit

  • Examines firearms, discharged bullets, cartridge cases, Shotgun shells, and ammunitions of all types
  • Examines garments for gun discharge residue
  • Determine angle and distance a firearm was fired
services of the crime lab3
SERVICES OF THE CRIME LAB

Document Examination Unit

  • Studies the handwriting and typewriting on questioned documents to ascertain authenticity and source
  • Analyzing paper and ink
services of the crime lab4
SERVICES OF THE CRIME LAB

Photography Lab

  • Examines and records physical evidence
  • Includes digital imaging infrared, ultraviolent, and X-ray photography
services of the crime lab5
SERVICES OF THE CRIME LAB

Toxicology Unit

  • Examines body fluids and organs to determine the presence of absence of drugs and poisons
  • Generally housed in the Coroner’s office

Latent Fingerprint Unit

  • Processes and examines evidence for latent fingerprints
services of the crime lab6
SERVICES OF THE CRIME LAB

Polygraph Unit

  • Lie detector
  • Maintained and used at Police departments

Voiceprint Analysis Unit

  • Used in telephone threats or tape-recorded messages
  • Uses digital generated voiceprint to compare samples
services of the crime lab7
SERVICES OF THE CRIME LAB

Crime Scene Investigations Unit

  • CSI
  • Becoming more popular since 911
  • Combines all units under 1 unit
  • Evidence is collected, recorded and analyzed
summary
SUMMARY
  • The development of crime labs in the US has been characterized by rapid growth accompanied by lack of national and regional planning and coordination
slide29

Four major reasons for the increase in the number of crime laboratories in the US since 1960

    • Miranda Rights eliminated confessions as a routine investigation tool
    • Staggering increase in crime rates in the US
    • Illicit-drugs must be sent to a forensic lab to be identified
    • The advent of DNA profiling
summary1
SUMMARY
  • The technical support provided by crime laboratories can be assigned to five basic services:
    • Physical science unit
    • Biology unit
    • Firearms unit
    • Document examination unit
    • Photography unit
summary2
SUMMARY
  • Some crime labs offer optional services such as toxicology, fingerprint analysis, polygraph administration, voiceprint analysis, and Crime scene investigation
  • Special forensic science services available to the law enforcement community include forensic pathology, forensic anthropology, forensic entomology, forensic psychiatry, forensic Odontology, forensic engineering, forensic computer and digital analysis
the functions of the forensic scientist
The Functions of the Forensic Scientist
  • Analyzing Physical Evidence
  • Determine admissibility of evidence
  • Judging scientific evidence
  • Providing expert testimony
  • Furnish training in the proper recognition, collection and preservation of physical evidence
summary3
SUMMARY
  • A forensics scientist must be skilled in applying the principles and techniques of the physical and natural sciences to analyzing evidence that may be recovered during a criminal investigation
  • The cases Frye vs.. United States and Daubert vs. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals Inc set guidelines for determining the admissibility of scientific evidence into the courtroom
slide34

An expert witness evaluate evidence based on specialized training and experience

  • Forensics scientists participate in training law enforcement personnel in the proper recognition, collection and preservation of physical evidence
vocabulary1
VOCABULARY
  • Scientific method – a process that uses strict guidelines to ensure carful and systematic collection organization and analysis of information
  • Expert witness – a individual whom the court determines to possess a particular skill or knowledge in a trade or profession that is not expected of the average layperson and that will aid a court in determining the truth of a matter at a trial
slide36

http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/player/places/culture-places/work/us_crimescenecleaners.htmlhttp://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/player/places/culture-places/work/us_crimescenecleaners.html

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EQUE8IeVmpA