Forensic Science Application of science to those criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in a criminal justice system.
History of Forensics There are many great men who contributed to the discovery of techniques used today to analyze evidence used in the solving of a crime.
Mathieu Orfila • (1787 – 1853) Considered to be the father of toxicology
Alphonse Bertillon • (1853 - 1914) The first scientific system of personal identification by a series of body measurements. This was replaced by fingerprints in the early 1900’s
Francis Galton • (1833 – 1911) First to study fingerprints and classify them for filing.
Leone Lattes • (1887 – 1954) Discovered that blood can be grouped into four categories called types - ABO
Calvin Goddard • (1891-1955) Determined the comparison of bullets in guns – Ballistics
Albert S. Osborn • (1858 – 1946) Developed principles of document examination
Walter C. McCrone • (1916 – 2002) Developed advances in microscopic techniques to solve crimes and analyze evidence
Hans Gross • (1847 – 1915) Studied and developed principles of criminal investigation
Edmond Locard • (1877-1966) Used the scientific method in criminal investigation. Background was medicine and law.
Major Federal Crime Labs • The FBI (Department of Justice) maintains the largest crime laboratory in the world. • The Drug Enforcement Administration Laboratories (Department of Justice) are responsible for the analysis of drugs seized in violation of federal laws regulating the production, sale, and transportation of drugs. • The laboratories of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearmsand Explosives (Department of Justice) have responsibility for analyzing alcoholic beverages and documents relating to tax law enforcement and for examining weapons, explosive devices, and related evidence received in conjunction with enforcement of the Gun Control Act of 1968 and the Organized Crime Control Act of 1970. • The U.S. Postal Inspection Service maintains laboratories concerned with criminal investigations relating to the postal service.
Services of the Crime Laboratory • Physical Science Unit – Analyzes drugs, glass, paint, explosives, and soil.
Services of the Crime Laboratory • Biology Unit – Analyzes DNA, blood, body fluids, hair, fibers, wood, and plants.
Services of the Crime Laboratory • Firearms Unit – Examines firearms, discharged bullets, cartridge cases, shotgun shells, and ammunition.
Services of the Crime Laboratory • Document Examination Unit – handwriting and typewriting on documents is analyzed
Services of the Crime Laboratory • Photography Unit – digital imaging, infrared, ultraviolet, and X-ray photography are used. Two pinholes X 100 Left pinhole X 400 Right pinhole X 400
Other Units of a Crime Lab • Toxicology Unit – Body fluids and organs are examined for the presence or absence of drugs or poisons.
Other Units of a Crime Lab • Latent Fingerprint Unit – Processing and examining evidence for latent fingerprints.
Other Units of a Crime Lab • Polygraph Unit – Lie detector
Other Units of a Crime Lab • Voiceprint Analysis Unit – Involved in telephoned threats or tape-recorded messages.
Other Units of a Crime Lab • Evidence-Collection Unit – trained to collect evidence at the crime scene
Other Forensic Science Services • Forensic Pathology – involves the investigation of sudden, unnatural, unexplained, or violent deaths. Also called Medical Examiners or Coroners. Usually perform the autopsy
Other Forensic Science Services • Forensic Anthropology – involves the identification and examination of the human skeleton
Other Forensic Science Services • Forensic Entomology – Study of insects and their relation to a criminal investigation
Forensic Services Continued: • Forensic Psychiatry – involves the assessment and treatment of mentally abnormal offenders, as well as the legal aspects of psychiatry. This includes knowledge of the law relating to ordinary psychiatric practice, civil law and issues of criminal responsibility. • Forensic Psychology - involves the application of psychological knowledge, theory and skills to the understanding and functioning of the legal and criminal justice system. Forensic psychology encompasses psychology and the law, the psychology of police and policing, corrections, parole, victim services, addiction services and family services. It also covers activities related to law enforcement and the assessment and treatment of juvenile and adult offenders.
Forensic Services Continued: • Forensic Odontology – Identification of victims when the body is left in an unrecognizable state by their teeth, the alignment, and overall structure of the mouth.
Forensic Services Continued: • Forensic Engineering – Concerned with failure analysis, accident reconstruction, and causes and origins of fires or explosions. Failed fuel pipe