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  1. Forensic Science An Introduction to Scientific and Investigative Techniques Stuart H. James and Jon J. Nordby CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  2. Chapter 31 Criminal Personality Profiling Chapter Authors: Michael R. Napier and Kenneth P. Baker • Presentation created by Greg Galardi, Peru, Nebraska CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  3. Criminal Personality Profiling • Purpose of offender profiling is to help investigators to narrow the field of suspects based on the characteristics of the crime scene and initial investigative information CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  4. Criminal Personality Profiling • FBI Behavioral Sciences Unit has developed an accepted investigative tool for officers tasked with solving violent crimes by understanding certain aspects of violent criminal behavior CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  5. Criminal Personality Profiling • Policing today is performed by professionals possessing better education and training • These individuals use advancements in forensic science and investigations to their advantage to assist in solving crime CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  6. Criminal Personality Profiling • Profiling process provides an approach to conduct a thorough and competent behaviorally based examination of crime scenes and investigations of violent crimes that display characteristics amenable to profiling process • Behavioral evidence at crime scenes may give insight into characteristics of offender CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  7. Expert Test Experts should meet following criteria: • Has expert had opportunity to review criminological research at FBI BSU, academicians or other law enforcement researchers CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  8. Expert Test Has expert been trained extensively in theoretical and behavioral aspects of criminal behavior, crime scene reconstruction, criminalistics and other forensic fields CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  9. Expert Test Does expert have extensive investigative experience involving violent crimes, hands on processing of crime scenes, examining effects of wounding and injuries, observing autopsies, and applying criminal analysis to wide range of violent crimes CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  10. Expert Test Does the expert approach the investigation of an unsolved violent crime from a law enforcement perspective rather than a clinical psychology one? CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  11. History of Profiling and Criminal Investigative Analysis • Sherlock Holmes and Charlie Chan brought common place crime solving skills into play • Experienced investigators of violent crime develop a cumulative sense of offender traits CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  12. History of Profiling and Criminal Investigative Analysis • During the 1950s and 1960s, a select cadre of sworn law enforcement officers was selected to attend FBI Academy • As new techniques were developed, ideas were shared which would promulgate cooperative crime solving methods CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  13. History of Profiling and Criminal Investigative Analysis • FBI developed Behavioral Science Unit • Development of quantitative and qualitative research was done • Face to face interviews with convicted offenders were done to better understand criminal behavior and conduct CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  14. Criminal Investigative Analysis CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition Processes of criminal investigative analysis are: • Crime from a behavioral perspective • Criminal personality profiling • Crime scene analysis and reconstruction • Search warrant applications

  15. Criminal Investigative Analysis • Investigative strategies • Interview and interrogation strategies • Prosecution strategies • Case linkage of serial offenses • Equivocal death analyses • Threat analyses CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  16. General Concepts • National Center for the Analysis of Behavioral Crime is operational successor of FBI’s Behavioral Science Unit • CIA collection and processes have been very successful in assisting in the apprehension of criminals CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  17. Profiling Profiling is defined as the identification of certain characteristics of an unknown, unidentified offender based on the way he committed a violent act, and his interactions with the victim CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  18. Descriptive Traits of Offender • Some traits are learned from witnesses, but most valuable are from combination of: • Crime scene examination • Investigative experience • continued… CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  19. Descriptive Traits of Offender • Understanding of offender and victim behaviors • Knowledge of wound patterns • Knowledge of forensic evidence • Results of research conducted by FBI/BSU CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  20. Categories of Profiling Descriptors • Categories include: • Sex • Race • Age • Criminal History CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  21. Categories of Profiling Descriptors • Employment History • Social Adjustment • Sexual adjustment or abnormalities • Alcohol or drug usage • Educational level • Interpersonal skills CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  22. Victimology Victimology – victim’s history that impacts the analysis of a crime and the behavioral study of a victim of a violent crime CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  23. Victimology Victimology examines areas including victim’s reputation, lifestyle, habits, associates, and pastimes to form an opinion about individual’s risk of becoming a crime victim CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  24. Victimology • Goal of victimology in investigation is to answer critical questions: • Why was that person attacked instead of another person? • Was the victim’s lifestyle a contributing factor toward victimization? CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  25. Victimology By learning the personality, attitudes, lifestyle habits and perspectives of a victim, the crime scene and offense can be better analyzed and evaluated for a better behavioral understanding of what transpired and why crime occurred. CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  26. Trophy or Souvenir- What is Taken from Victim? • Difference in offenders is demonstrated by items taken from victim and categorization of those items: • Evidentiary • Valuables • Psychological CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  27. Trophy or Souvenir- What is Taken from Victim? Depending on the perspective of the criminal, items taken from victims may represent trophies or souvenirs CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  28. Trophy Is the item significant to the offender as an accomplishment or a victory and is a trophy of his action CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  29. Souvenir Is the item taken a fondly remembered occurrence and retained as a souvenir for conclusion in masturbatory fantasies CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  30. Three Axioms for Offender Profiling Behavior reflects personality: How a person acts helps to determine their personality. CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  31. Three Axioms for Offender Profiling Behavior left at a crime scene can be discerned: Evidence left at crime, such as DNA, prints, hair, blood, threads from clothing, leaves behind traces of behavior CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  32. Three Axioms for Offender Profiling • Cumulative research into human behavior by the FBI and many others has allowed behavioralists to classify offenders into typologies CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  33. Analysis of the Three Axioms • To offer and analysis, investigators must: • Base analysis on concrete data • Not venture forth and offer an opinion before a conclusive observation of all evidence is reviewed • Not use flawed or inaccurate data in determination of final analysis CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  34. Results: Type of Analysis • Crime Analysis- Investigator gathers all available data about commission of criminal act, the victim and offender • Each act or behavior at a crime scene is examined by asking why and how event occurred CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  35. Results: Crime Analysis • What type f person would have acted in that manner? • Crime analysis generally allows investigator to reconstruct interaction between offender ad the victim, and permits explanation of individual pieces of crime scene puzzle CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  36. Results: Crime Analysis • Process of crime scene analysis allows for a better understanding of offender’s motivation, criminal sophistication, and possible prior relationship with victim CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  37. Results: Crime Analysis • As new evidence arrives during crime analysis, investigator may rethink his analysis, and adjust his interview and investigative strategies • Logical thinking and specific parameters should be used by investigators CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  38. Results: Crime Analysis • Examples of bodies of knowledge necessary for successful investigator: • Knowledge and limitations of scientific techniques • Understanding of criminal thinking practically and academically • Special expertise of criminal investigators CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  39. Crime Scene Reconstruction • Crime scene reconstruction allows crime scene investigator to understand how victim was approached and controlled, and interactions between victim and offender CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  40. Crime Scene Reconstruction Critical part of crime analysis is to be able to reconstruct and sequence criminal acts as they occurred in interaction between victim and offender CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  41. Crime Scene Reconstruction • Assists investigator in getting a better feel for the crime: how and why crime occurred • Level of spontaneity or planning of crime by offender may be ascertained • Allows investigator to have a broader foundation of knowledge to conduct investigation CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  42. Investigative and Prosecutorial Strategies • Strategizing over investigation of crime is part of investigator’s approach Avenues for exploration and psychological strengths or weaknesses of individuals may be part of investigative strategy CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  43. Investigative and Prosecutorial Strategies • Preparation of inclusive or partial media statements can assist in framing vulnerabilities of suspect and allow for insider information to be withheld CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  44. Investigative and Prosecutorial Strategies • Prosecutors may use knowledge of offender behavior and motivation to: • Arrange proof offered in a specific manner • Structure questions specifically • Order questions specifically CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  45. Investigative and Prosecutorial Strategies • Prosecutor strategy continued; • Include trigger terminology of special significance to defendant • Use inside information to tie together themes in prosecution strategy and include information in arguments CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  46. Interview and Interrogation Strategies Case resolution often rests with results of investigator’s interview and interrogation skills CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  47. Interview and Interrogation Strategies • Two prongs of offender specific interview and interrogation strategies: • Behavioral evidence from crime scene • Specific background and behavioral traits of suspect CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  48. Interview and Interrogation Strategies Prong one involves behavioral evidence retrieved from crime scene Evidence reveals information about offender’s criminal makeup- motivation, skill, victim selection process, interpersonal skills, anger control, criminal sophistication, and personal elements CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  49. Interview and Interrogation Strategies Prong two involves the specific background and behavioral traits of a suspect Valuable source of information about suspect can be retrieved from police officers who had prior contact with suspect CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

  50. Interview and Interrogation Strategies Prong two continued: • Suspects have favorite mechanisms they use without conscious thought to protect their self concept • These are developed and honed over years • Deeply ingrained within their personality and have become second nature CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition