The role of stakeholders: the Netherlands Dr. Andrea Keessen Utrecht University 2013
Introduction • 2 Dutch cases: EsscheStroom & Overdiepse polder • Importance of participation • Law in the books & the law in action
Adaptive management Importance of participation Focus on learning • Experiments • Sociallearning: participation • Bio-regionalscale • Polycentricity
Essche Stroom (Brabant) • Nature development, water quality and quantity • Manyauthoritiesinvolved: no cleardivision of competences, responsibility & financing of new nature measures • Water board implements all measures, provinceremainsresponsible and finances new nature • Many small scaleprojects: increased flexibility + participation -> sociallearningopportunities
Overdiepse polder (Meuse) • State assigned polder as a water storage area. • European and Dutch Lawdemandparticipation, but not in anearly stage. • Inhabitants did not want to protest & delay but instead made aninnovative plan. • From living behind a dyketo living on a terp. • Province coordinated the process, water board implemented the plan, municipality was involved as well. • Agreement on (flood) damageswith the State.
Conclusions • The Dutch legalframeworkrecognizes the needforparticipation. • Participation is mandatory in the above cases oncethere is a plan or draft decision. • The law does notpromote private involvementthroughearly public participation, despiterecommendations. • Yetithappens in practice.