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Processes of Speech. Respiration Lungs: energy source Phonation Larynx: sound source Resonation Resonators: sound amplifiers/dampeners Articulation Articulators: sound modifiers. Main Processor. Nervous system Central nervous system Brain Spinal cord Peripheral nervous system

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processes of speech
Processes of Speech
  • Respiration
    • Lungs: energy source
  • Phonation
    • Larynx: sound source
  • Resonation
    • Resonators: sound amplifiers/dampeners
  • Articulation
    • Articulators: sound modifiers
main processor
Main Processor
  • Nervous system
    • Central nervous system
      • Brain
      • Spinal cord
    • Peripheral nervous system
      • Nerves
classifying sounds of english

Classifying Sounds of English

Vowels and Consonants

What makes a vowel a vowel?

What makes a consonant a consonant?

consonant classification
Consonant Classification
  • Placement of articulators
    • Passive and active articulators
  • Manner of air flow
    • Where and how does air flow?
  • Voiced or voiceless
    • Are the vocal folds vibrating or not?
placement of articulators
Placement of articulators
  • Labials - lips
  • Dentals - teeth
  • Alveolars – alveolar ridge
  • Palatals – hard palate
  • Velars – soft palate
  • Glottals – glottis
manner of airflow
Manner of airflow
  • Stops
  • Fricatives
  • Affricates
  • Liquids
  • Glides
  • Nasals
voiced vs voiceless
Voiced vs. voiceless
  • Voiced phonemes
    • Vocal fold vibration
    • All vowels are voiced
    • Some English consonants are voiced
  • Voiceless phonemes
    • No vocal fold vibration
    • Cognate pairs with voiced partners
other manners of airflow
Other manners of airflow
  • Obstruents
    • Produced with obstructed vocal tract
    • Includes fricatives, affricates, and stops
  • Sonorants
    • Produced with relatively open vocal tract
    • Includes liquids, glides and nasals
  • Approximants
    • Produced with relatively open oral tract
    • Includes liquids and glides
other manners continued
Other manners (continued)
  • Stridents
    • Produced by directing airflow against a surface
    • Creates considerable friction
    • Includes /f, v, s, z, , , t, d/
  • Sibilants
    • Subset of stridents
    • Hissing/hushing sounds
    • Includes /s, z, , , t, d/
  • Laterals
    • Made with lateral airflow
    • Includes the /l/

http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/about.html#

website for consonant classification
Website for consonant classification

http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/english/frameset.html

vowel classification
Vowel Classification
  • Tongue position
    • Tongue height in the oral cavity
      • High – mid – low
    • Tongue advancement
      • Front – central – back
  • Lip rounding
    • Front vowels = lip retraction
    • Back vowels – lip rounding
vowel chart
Vowel chart

Retracted lips --------------------Rounded lips

distinctive features
Distinctive Features
  • A binary classification system – indicating the presence or absence of a feature
  • Can classify vowels or consonants
  • Is it rounded or not rounded?

+

-

/w/

/l/

chomsky halle 1968 distinctive features
Chomsky & Halle (1968)Distinctive Features
  • Vocalic – like a vowel
  • Consonantal – like a consonant
  • High – body of tongue elevated
distinctive features continued
Distinctive Features (continued)
  • Back – tongue elevates to velum
  • Low – tongue in lowest position: /h/
  • Anterior – sound made with articulators at alveolar ridge or forward
  • Coronal – sound made with tongue blade raised
  • Round – lips rounded
distinctive features continued16
Distinctive Features (continued)
  • Tense – degree of muscle tension
  • Continuant – flow of air not stopped
  • Nasal – sounds resonated in nasal
  • cavity
distinctive features continued17
Distinctive Features (continued)
  • Strident – forced airstream creates intense noise quality to sounds
  • Sonorant – unimpeded sound through oral cavity
  • Interrupted – completely blocked airflow at some point in production
  • Lateral – air flows along the lateral margins of tongue
  • Voice – vibrating vocal folds