Figures of Speech. Taken from: Columbia Encyclopaedia Encyclopaedia Brittanica merriam webster.com Bartleby.com. Personification.
(1755) metaphorically represents an animal or inanimate object (and ideas and abstractions) as having human attributes — of form, character, feelings, behaviour, etc.
The ascription of human traits or feelings to inanimate nature is called FICTIO and when this natural-world personification is limited to emotion, John Ruskin called it the PATHETIC FALLACY.
…the difference between the ordinary, proper, and true appearances of things to us; and the extraordinary, or false appearances, when we are under the influence of emotion, or contemplative fancy; false appearances, I say, as being entirely unconnected with any real power or character in the object, and only imputed to it by us. (1856. Of the Pathetic Fallacy).
Figure of speech in which an absent person, a personified inanimate being, or an abstraction is addressed as though present. The term is derived from a Greek word meaning “a turning away,” and this sense is maintained when a narrative or dramatic thread is broken in order to digress by speaking directly to someone not there, e.g., “Envy, be silent and attend!”—Alexander Pope, “On a Certain Lady at Court.”
(Gk. metapherein, to transfer, 1533) a figure of speech in which a word or phrase literally denoting one kind of object/idea is used in place of another dissimilar object/idea to suggest a likeness; ascribing to the first some of the qualities of the second. Unlike a simile or analogy, metaphor asserts that one thing is another thing, not just that one is like another.
a-is-b form is not necessary:
(14th century) is a direct, expressed comparison between two things essentially unlike, but resembling each other in at least one aspect. It is a device both of art and explanation, comparing the unfamiliar thing to be explained to some familiar thing known to the reader. There is no simile in the comparison, "My car is like your car," because the two objects are not "essentially unlike" each other.
When you compare a noun to a noun, the simile is usually introduced by like:
When a verb or phrase is compared to a verb or phrase, as is used:
Whenever it is not immediately clear, the point of similarity between the unlike objects must be specified to avoid confusion and vagueness.
(Gk. synecdoche, sense, interpretation, 15th c.) a figure of speech by which a part is put for the whole (as fifty sail for fifty ships), the whole for a part (as society for high society), the species for the genus (as cutthroat for assassin), the genus for the species (as a creature for a man), or the name of the material for the thing made (as boards for stage).
(Gk. metonymia, 1547)a figure of speech consisting of the use of the name of one thing for that of another of which it is an attribute or with which it is associated; it is another form of metaphor.
(Lat. alludere, 1548)an implied or indirect reference especially in literature or a short, informal reference to a famous person or event:
(Gk. hyperballein, to exceed, 15th c.) the counterpart of understatement, extravagant exaggeration for emphasis or effect.
(Gk. epithetos, added, 1579) is an adjective or adjective phrase qualifying a noun by naming an important characteristic of it.
The epithet may also be metaphorical,
A TRANSFERRED EPITHETis an adjective modifying a noun which it cannot logically modify, yet which works because the metaphorical meaning remains clear:
Late Greek oxymOron, from neuter of oxymOros pointedly foolish, from Greek oxys sharp, keen + mOros foolish
Oxymoron is a a combination of contradictory or incongruous words, a paradox reduced to two words, usually in an adjective-noun ("eloquent silence") or adverb-adjective ("inertly strong") relationship, and is used for effect, complexity, emphasis, or wit:
Juxtaposition/contrast of ideas/words in a parallel construction