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One Out of Five Teenagers is Overweight. TEENS. ADULTS. 15%. 21%. 25%. 31%. '76 - '80. '88 - '91. '76 - '80. '88 - '91. 40% increase in proportion of overweight teens, over a 12-year period. Possible Causes: Too much junk food Too much TV watching Lack of Exercise.

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slide1

One Out of Five Teenagers is Overweight

TEENS

ADULTS

15%

21%

25%

31%

'76 - '80

'88 - '91

'76 - '80

'88 - '91

40% increase in proportion of overweight teens, over a 12-year period

  • Possible Causes:
  • Too much junk food
  • Too much TV watching
  • Lack of Exercise

Source: National Center for Health Statistics (1994)

slide2

FEATURES OF FORMAL OPERATIONAL THINKING

  • Attention to hypothetical ideas and possibilities
  • Scientific reasoning
  • Logical combination of ideas
  • Abstract thinking
slide3

The Pendulum Problem

A Piagetian test for formal operational thinking

X

1

Y

2

Z

3

B

C

A

  • There are:
    • 3 weights (A, B, C)
    • 3 lengths of string (1, 2, 3)
    • 3 push positions (X, Y, Z)
  • Which makes the quickest arc?

Source: Howard Gruber & J. Jacques Vonesce, The Essential Piaget. New York, Basic Books (1977).

slide4

KOHLBERG'S STAGES OF MORAL JUDGMENT

  • PRECONVENTIONAL LEVEL (emphasis on avoiding punishments and getting awards)
  • Stage 1: Heteronomous morality; ethics of punishment and obedience
  • Stage 2: Instrumental purpose; ethics of market exchange
  • CONVENTIONAL LEVEL (emphasis on social rules)
  • Stage 3: Interpersonal conformity; ethics of peer opinion
  • Stage 4: Social system orientation: conformity to social system; ethics of law and order
  • POSTCONVENTIOANL LEVEL (emphasis on moral principles)
  • Stage 5: Social contract orientation; ethics of social contract and individual rights
  • Stage 6:Ethics of self-chosen universal principles
slide5

Longitudinal Development of Moral Reasoning

stage 1

stage 2

stage 3

stage 4

stage 5

70

60

50

Moral reasoning (percent)

40

30

20

10

0

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

28

30

32

34

36

Age (in Years)

slide6

Gilligans's Stages of Moral Development

Stage

Features

Stage 1 Survival orientation

Stage 2 Conventional care

Stage 3 Integrated care

Egocentric concern for self, lack of awareness of others' needs; "right" action is what promotes emotional or physical survival

Lack of distinction between what others want and what is right; "right" action is whatever pleases others best

Coordination or integration of needs of self and of others; "right" action takes account of self as well as others

slide7

Developmental Changes in Information Processing

Control processes

Environmental stimuli

(input)

Increased efficiency

Long-term

memory

(LTM)

Rehearsal

Short-term

memory

(STM)

Attention

Greater

specific

expertise

Greater

knowledge

about problem-solving

Sensory

register

(SR)

Organization

Recognition

Increased

size

Meaningfulness

Response

(output)

slide8

Summary of Adolescent Cognitive Development

  • Piaget’s formal operational stage
  • Scientific and abstract thinking develop
  • Information processing skills continue to improve
  • Moral development matures