Teenagers Lisa Meredith Jennifer Emily and PLASTIC SURGERY
The effects of plastic surgery in the media on Teens • Television • Shows like “Extreme Makeover” and “The Swan” are fueling the desire of teens to change their appearance permanently. • Media has a huge impact on how teens perceive beauty. • Magazines • Covers show anorexic-looking models and celebrities who look unrealistically beautiful. • Teens think this is real and don’t realize that editing and manipulations go into the final photos. • Advertisements in magazines “promise to transform a girl’s appearance”
The effects of plastic surgery in the media on Teens • Internet • Teens see advertisements on popular websites, which are effective as many teens are looking for acceptance and greater self-esteem during the awkward formative teen years. • When teens log on to certain search engines they see these ads for enhancements.
Some teens seek perfection... but at what price? www.whatisvictoriassecret.com/ The cost: a serious mental disorder.
Body Dysmorphic Disorder The standard description of BDD by the American Psychiatric Association: The Poster Boy for BDD: • An abnormal preoccupation with a perceived “imperfect” body or physical defect. • This preoccupation causes anxiety, depression and a distorted view of oneself that affects the individual’s ability to function in society. • Occurs in both males and females Michael Jackson
Excessive grooming Excessive exercise or dieting Frequently comparing appearance to others; scrutinizing the appearance of others Frequently checking appearance in mirrors & other reflective surfaces, and/or Avoiding mirrors & other reflective surfaces Feeling nervous & self-conscious around other people because they might see the perceived body defect Hiding the perceived defect with clothing, makeup, posture, etc. Questioning compliments; looking for compliments, needing to be reassured, and/or trying to convince others about the perceived defect Frustration with those who do not see the perceived defect Obsession with the perceived defect: touching it, picking at it, measuring it, staring at it for hours Excessively reading or searching the internet about the perceived defect Avoiding social situations where the perceived defect might be discovered Frequent absenteeism from school because of “feeling ugly” or the inability to properly “hide” the perceived defect Seeking cosmetic surgery, drugs, or other medical treatment for the perceived defect even though doctors, family & friends don’t think any procedure is necessary www.yestheyrefake.net/4teens.html Symptoms of Body Dysmorphic Disorder:
BDD BDD can lead to steroid abuse, Body Dysmorphic Disorder affects 1 in 50 people– about 2% of the people in the US. In 70% of BDD cases, the disorder begins to manifest itself before the age of 18. Self-degrading thoughts take over the mind until they are ALL the individual can think about. unnecessary plastic surgery, www.healthyplace.com
Statistics of Cosmetic Surgery • In 2005, there were nearly 11.5 million cosmetic procedures performed in the US. (Adults and minors) • Of those procedures, the surgical procedures accounted for19% and the non-surgical accounted for the remaining 81%. • For those 18 and under, • In 1997, there were 59,890 cosmetic surgical procedures • In 2003, there were 223,594 cosmetic surgical procedures • From www.surgery.org
The most common surgical procedures in Adolescents (male and female) • Chemical Peel: 101,286 • Microderm abrasion: 63,256 • Laser Hair Removal: 49,573 • Nose reshaping: 47,396 increase of 60% from 00-05 • Ear reshaping: 13,714 decrease of 40% from 00-05 • Botox: 11,908 increase of 357% from 00-05 • Breast augmentation: 3,581 decrease of 3% from 00-05 • Breast lift: 819 increase of 63% from 00-05 • Liposuction: 3,084 increase of 22% from 00-05
According to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, In adolescent boys, breast reduction (Gynecomastia) procedures numbered 4,223, in 2005. This showed an increase of 26% from 2000. Cosmetic minimally invasive procedures are on the rise. In 2005, cosmetic surgical procedures numbered 77,229. Non-surgical procedures (“minimally invasive”) numbered 256,134 Trends in Cosmetic Surgery
Why are girls more wanting of plastic surgery than boys? According to Dr. F. Palmer, plastic surgeon, “Everyone on the planet become more masculine looking as they age. This benefits men, but obviously not women…It is also true that society places more pressure on girls and women to constantly look good… they (women) also compete amongst themselves based on their appearance. Adolescent boys more often find acceptance and pride in athletic achievement and social networks. In fact, boys who spend lots of time on their appearance get teased for being “pretty boys” or ridiculed for looking GAY. The types of cosmetic procedures that many men receive (aside from rhinoplasty) are generally very new and invasive (pectoral implants, calf implants, and gastric bypass surgeries). Many doctors are unwilling to perform surgeries of this nature on patients under the age of 18 (as per the American Medical Association). Yet, boys as well as girls can dev- elop mental disorders like Body Dysmorphia and now, Muscle Dysmorphia. From: http://www.drfpalmer.com/teenagers_and_plastic_surgery.html
Muscle Dysmorphia An obsession with being muscular and lean Steroids trick the body into thinking it is producing testosterone This shuts down bodily functions like bone growth, causing the ends of bones to fuse together and stop growing Steroids cause the prostrate glands in males to become so large that a tube must be inserted into the penis in order to urinate Individuals with muscle dysmorphia will continue the use of steroids despite this knowledge They sacrifice their social life so that they can go to the gym for hours at a time Obsessing over strenuous workouts, diet and the use of performance-enhancing drugs (steroids) consumes them Steroids are often manufactured in motels & trailers and smuggled into the U.S. The amount, strength & purity of these drugs are not regulated
Ethics of Teenage Plastic Surgery According to the American Medical Association, ethical considerations regarding Plastic Surgery in Teenagers include: • Purpose of Surgery: Are the expected results realistic? Is the patient competent to make the decision to pursue surgery? • According to UPenn Psychologist, David Sarwer, “The big problem with adolescents is that they are being operated on at the most tumultuous time in their bodies. They may not recognize the permanence of what they’re doing.” • “It is difficult for a doctor to neutrally present both risks and benefits of a procedure that he or she is selling. Level of Physical Maturity: Will the teen outgrow the need to permanently alter their appearance? Social Cost: Does the patient suffer socially because of their “Problem”? ***From http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/14697.html
Ethics: Patient-Parent Decision • Are the parents supportive? Are parents pushing for surgery against patient’s desires? • “Although parents have legal responsibility for their child, the decision for surgery needs to come from the patient.” • “Requiring parental consent for patients under 18 does not ensure informed consent, since research is lacking on long-term risks for many cosmetic procedures.” ***From: http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/14697.html***
Ethics: Medical Effects • When surgery takes a unexpected wrong turn, irreparable damage can occur. Any surgery on a young, undeveloped person has the risk of complications, such a permanent scarring or infection, which may lead to death. • The FDA 2004 Handbook states: “Most women with breast implants will experience local complications, including pain, hardening, and rupture. Recipients should be prepared for long-term follow-up, re-operations to treat complications.” • From: http://www.familiesonlinemagazine.com/childdevelopment/teen-plastic-surgery.html