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United States Government. Miss Garrido’s 5th Grade Pocantico Hills School Sleepy Hollow, NY. What is Government?. The organization people set up to protect the community and enforce its rules. Powers of Government. Legislative: Power to make laws Executive: Power to carry out laws

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united states government

United States Government

Miss Garrido’s 5th Grade

Pocantico Hills School

Sleepy Hollow, NY

what is government
What is Government?
  • The organization people set up to protect the community and enforce its rules
powers of government
Powers of Government
  • Legislative: Power to make laws
  • Executive: Power to carry out laws
  • Judicial: Power to interpret laws
what is a law
What is a Law?
  • Official rules and regulations, generally found in the constitution
  • Used to govern a society and control the behavior of its members
kinds of government
Kinds of Government
  • Monarchy: kings and queens are rulers
    • King George III
  • Dictatorship: government with one ruler
    • Cuba
  • Democracy: people have power
    • U.S. Government
  • Political system
  • Rule by the people
  • People have basic freedom
  • Representative Democracy
the mayflower compact
The Mayflower Compact
  • Mayflower carried Pilgrims from England to Massachusetts
  • Before they left the ship, the passengers wrote a document called the Mayflower Compact
  • Promised to pass only laws that were fair to everyone and good for the whole community
the declaration of independence
The Declaration of Independence
  • British raised colonists taxes
  • Colonist protested
  • Fighting began
  • Committee chosen to write the document
    • Benjamin Franklin
    • John Adams
    • Thomas Jefferson
Laid the foundation for the nation’s future system of government
  • Approved on July 4, 1776
  • 56 people signed
  • John Hancock signed first
articles of confederation
Articles of Confederation
  • First Constitution of the United States
  • Adopted November 15, 1777
  • A preamble and 13 articles
  • State governments had most of the power
  • Little power given to the central government
the constitution of the united states
The Constitution of the United States
  • Document that tells basic rules and explain rights of a US citizen
  • Written 200 years ago
  • Written to unite all the 13 colonies
  • 57 men helped write it in 1787
  • Ratified by the states in 1788
  • It has 7 sections called Articles telling how the government works
three separate branches
Three Separate Branches
  • Each branch has power to check the others
  • Legislative: Power to make laws
  • Executive: Power to carry out laws
  • Judicial: Power to interpret laws
the bill of rights
The Bill of Rights
  • First 10 amendments
  • It guaranteed certain freedoms and rights
  • Added after the Constitution
  • Freedom of Speech
  • Freedom of Religion
  • Freedom to Assemble
  • Amendments change the Constitution
  • 2/3 of both the Senate and House of Representative must approve
  • 3/4 of all states must approve
federal government
Federal Government
  • Federal government deals with matters that affect the whole country
    • Defense
    • Transportation
    • Postal Delivery
    • Federal Taxes
federal government executive branch
Federal GovernmentExecutive Branch
  • Executive Branch carries out national laws
  • The President is head of the Executive Branch
  • Commander in Chief of nation’s army
  • Elected to a four year term
  • Approves the laws that congress makes
  • Proposed national budget
  • Can veto a bill
federal government legislative branch
Federal GovernmentLegislative Branch
  • Legislative branch makes laws for the nation
  • Two parts of the Legislative Branch
    • U.S. Senate
    • U.S. House of Representatives
federal government legislative branch19
Federal GovernmentLegislative Branch


  • Each state has 2
  • Senators must live in the state they represent
  • 30 years or older
  • Citizen of the U.S. for 9 years
  • Elected to 6 year term

House of Representative

  • Number according to size of state’s population
  • Representative must live in the state they represent
  • 25 years or older
  • US Citizen for 7 years
  • Elected to 2 year term
federal government judicial branch
Federal Government Judicial Branch
  • Judicial Branch interprets and applies national laws
  • Make up of the court system
  • Highest is the Supreme Court- appointed for life terms
  • Lowest levels are Justice of Peace
  • Gets its powers from Article III of the Constitution
state government
State Government
  • State Government deals with matters within their own state
    • Schools
    • State Roads
    • State Taxes
    • State Police
state government executive branch
State GovernmentExecutive Branch
  • Headed by the governor
  • Elected to 4 year term
  • Carries out laws of the state
  • Proposes state budget
  • Commander of the state militia
  • Can veto bills
state government legislative branch
State GovernmentLegislative Branch
  • Makes state laws
  • New York Senate has 61 members - 4 year terms
  • New York assembly has 150 - 2 year terms
  • Chief Officer assembly speaker
  • Legislature convenes in January
state government judicial branch
State GovernmentJudicial Branch
  • Interprets and applies state laws
  • New York Court of Appeals - appointed for 14 years
  • State Supreme Court - elected for a 14 year term
other kinds of government
Other Kinds of Government
  • County Government
    • NY has 62 counties
  • City Government
    • controls an area with large population
  • Town Government
  • Village Government

The People


Establish local fire departments

Purpose of State & Local Governments

Build Roads

Provide Public Service

Protect the Safety of their Citizens

Sanitation facilities

Patrol state highways

Promote the Well Being of their Citizens

Provide a System of Justice

Provide state funds for schools

Maintain state prison system

Protect the Rights of Individuals

Pass local fair housing laws

what is a citizen
What is a Citizen?
  • Two kinds of citizens
  • Native-born citizens
    • Born here
    • Children of American citizens born while visiting other countries
  • Naturalized citizens
    • Have to be at least 18
    • From other countries
    • Lived here 5 years to qualify
    • 3 years if they’re married to an American citizen
citizen s rights
Citizen’s Rights
  • Countries protect their citizens and give them rights
  • Naturalized and Native-born citizens have the same rights, except one
  • Naturalized citizens can’t run for president
  • Citizens can vote
  • Freedom of Religion
  • Freedom of Speech
  • Freedom of the Press
citizen s responsibilities
Citizen’s Responsibilities
  • Duty to obey the law
  • Vote in elections
  • To pay taxes
  • If the country is at war, citizens may be called to serve in the armed forces
  • Serve on a jury if called
patrick henry
Patrick Henry
  • Born May 29, 1736 in Hanover County, Va.
  • Storekeeper and farmer
  • Member of the revolutionary convention of Va.
  • Died on June 6, 1799
  • “Give me Liberty or Give me Death”
thomas jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
  • Third President of the United States in 1801-1809
  • Member of the second Continental Congress
  • Drafted the Declaration of Independence in 1776
  • Politician, Educator and an Architect
alexander hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
  • Helped secure New York's ratification of the Constitution
  • First Secretary of the Treasury
  • Shot and killed in a duel with former U.S. vice-president Aaron Burr, a long-time political rival
john jay
John Jay
  • Continental Congress
  • Commissioner Treaty of Paris Continental Congress 1774-1775
  • First Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
  • Helped negotiate peace with Great Britain
  • Governor of N.Y.
thomas paine
Thomas Paine
  • Wrote Common Sense, which called for American independence from Great Britain
  • Born in Thetford, England
  • 1774-Moved to Philadelphia
  • Influenced fighters in the Revolutionary War
  • Buried in New Rochelle, NY
george washington
George Washington
  • Born February 22, 1732
  • General in the French and Indian War
  • General in Revolutionary War
  • President of the Constitutional Convention
  • First President of the United States
sam adams
Sam Adams
  • Adams was born in Boston on September 27, 1722.
  • After college was a success law student.
  • Adams was a delegate to the Second Continental Congress
  • also subsequently
james madison
James Madison
  • From Virginia
  • Founding Father
  • Wrote Bill of Rights
  • Signed the Constitution
  • Married Dolly Madison
  • Congressman
  • 4th President of the United States
francis scott key
Francis Scott Key
  • Watched the bombardment of Fort McHenry, in Baltimore Harbor by the British in September 1814
  • The fort withstood the attack, and the sight of the American flag at dawn inspired Key's verses, set to a popular English drinking tune
national anthem
National Anthem
  • “O say can you see...”
  • Hymn of loyalty to our country
  • Designation as national anthem by executive order in 1916 was confirmed by an act of Congress in 1931
  • Written by Francis Scott Key, a Washington D.C. lawyer
american flag
American Flag
  • Symbol of our nation
  • Original had 13 alternating red & white stripes and 13 stars-one for each colony
  • Now one star for each state (50)
  • Legend is that Betsy Ross sewed 1st flag for George Washington
pledge of allegiance
Pledge of Allegiance
  • I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America and to the republic for which it stands: one nation, under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.