# How Do Geographers Describe Where Things Are? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

How Do Geographers Describe Where Things Are?

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How Do Geographers Describe Where Things Are?

## How Do Geographers Describe Where Things Are?

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##### Presentation Transcript

1. Maps and Modern tools How Do Geographers Describe Where Things Are?

2. Patterns • Geographers look for patterns.

3. Patterns • When they find similarities or differences between places, they ask why.

4. In order to explain these differences, geographers must have tools to help answer WHERE something is.

5. Geographic Concepts and Models

6. Cartography • Definition: The science of map-making • Two reasons to use maps: • As a reference tool (to keep us from getting lost) • As a communications tool (to explain where something is distributed)

7. Map Scales • Measured in three ways: • Ratio (ex. 1 inch=25,000 inches) • Written Scale (ex. 1 inch=50 miles) • Graphic Scale (ex. bar line – see picture on left)

8. Map Projection • Projection – Transferring locations on Earth’s surface to a flat map http://www.1worldglobes.com/images/Globes/Discovery-Globe-thumb.jpg

9. Projection • Can be difficult, as most maps are distorted (sphere vs. flat paper) • BUT…globes aren’t portable or practical

10. Projection cont’d • 4 types of distortions • Shape • Distance (Between two points) • Relative size (may appear larger or smaller than it actually is) • Direction (from one place to another) C:\Users\stevensaa\Desktop\mirror_distortion_1_th[1].gif

11. Satellite-Based Maps • GPS – Global Positioning System • Determines the precise position of areas on Earth • 3 Elements: • Numerous satellites (remote sensing) • Tracking stations (controls the satellites) • Receiver (used to pinpoint location) http://www.nist.gov/pml/div688/grp40/images/GPS_Constellation_2.gif

12. Satellite cont’d • GIS – Geographic Information System) • Computer system that can capture, store, analyze, and display geographic data • More accurate • Can show relationships between different kinds of information http://gothamist.com/attachments/jake/2006_6_bestofmap1.jpg