Parenteral Medications - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Parenteral Medications

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  1. Parenteral Medications Unit 14

  2. Objectives • Describe the syringes that are most frequently used for administering parenteral medications • Describe the component parts of a syringe • Explain how to prevent needlestick injuries in health care settings • Describe the component parts of a needle • Dispose of used syringes correctly

  3. Parenteral Medications • Medications that are given with a syringe • Syringe-needle unit: used to inject a liquid substance into the body tissues, veins, arteries, or body canals • Syringe alone: used to perform an irrigation or to administer oral medications

  4. Parts of a Syringe • Component parts of a syringe include: • Barrel: part that holds medication and has graduated calibrations • Plunger: movable cylinder, inserts within the barrel • Flange: end of the barrel where the plunger is inserted • Tip: point of needle attachment

  5. Classification of Syriges • Syringes named according to their sizes and usages • Types: • Hypodermic: intramuscular and subcutaneous injections; venipuncture • Tuberculin: allergy testing, allergy injections • Insulin: administration of insulin

  6. Types of Syringes • Common types of syringes include: • Disposable • Nondisposable • Combination of the two types above

  7. Disposable Syringes • Sterilized, pre-packaged, ready to use • Sizes range from 1-60 cc • Labeling includes manufacturer’s name, type and size of the syringe, gauge, length of the needle, and reorder number

  8. Advantages of Disposable Syringes • Guaranteed to be sterile • Wide range of available sizes • Needle made of stainless steel • Syringe-needle unit saves time • Once used, the unit is discarded

  9. Nondisposable Syringes • Made of strengthened glass • Sizes range from 1-60 cc • Not often used for the administration of injections • Used in procedures including paracentesis, thoracentesis, and tracheotomy

  10. Combination Syringes • Cartridge-injection system: consists of a disposable cartridge-needle unit and a nondisposable cartridge-holder syringe • Easy to use • Convenient

  11. Needlestick Injuries • Needlestick safety and prevention act (1992): requires all employers to protect employees who may be exposed to blood or other potentially infectious materials resulting from needlestick or other percutaneous injuries

  12. Safety Device Designs • An estimated 384,000 skin puncture injuries occur in the U.S. hospitals and physician offices each year • Up to 88% of these injuries could have been prevented by using safety-engineered needles and other devices

  13. Safety Devices • Examples include: • Needleless connectors for IV delivery • Protected needle IV connectors • Self-retracting needles • Sliding needle shields • Retractable fingerstick and heelstick lancets

  14. Safety Practices • Avoid the use of needles when possible • Use devices with safety features • Avoid recapping needles • Plan safe handling and disposal before beginning any procedure • Dispose of used needles in a sharps box • Report all injuries immediately

  15. Needle Gauge • Range from 16-30 • Lengths vary from 3/8 – 2 inches • Gauge is determined by the diameter of the lumen, or opening at the tip • The larger the gauge, the smaller the diameter of the lumen • Ex. A 30-gauge needle is much smaller than a 16-guage needle

  16. Parts of a Needle • Point: sharpened end of the needle • Bevel: flat, slanted surface • Lumen: oval-shaped opening • Shaft: hollow steel tube where the medication passes through • Hub: mounts onto the syringe • Hilt: point where shaft attaches to the hub

  17. Selecting Syringes • Two factors to consider include: • Type of medication ordered • Thick medications use 21-16 G • Subcutaneous injections should not exceed 2 cc • Intramuscular injections should not exceed 3 cc • Age/size of the patient