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Parenteral Medications Unit 14 Objectives Describe the syringes that are most frequently used for administering parenteral medications Describe the component parts of a syringe Explain how to prevent needlestick injuries in health care settings Describe the component parts of a needle

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objectives
Objectives
  • Describe the syringes that are most frequently used for administering parenteral medications
  • Describe the component parts of a syringe
  • Explain how to prevent needlestick injuries in health care settings
  • Describe the component parts of a needle
  • Dispose of used syringes correctly
parenteral medications3
Parenteral Medications
  • Medications that are given with a syringe
  • Syringe-needle unit: used to inject a liquid substance into the body tissues, veins, arteries, or body canals
  • Syringe alone: used to perform an irrigation or to administer oral medications
parts of a syringe
Parts of a Syringe
  • Component parts of a syringe include:
  • Barrel: part that holds medication and has graduated calibrations
  • Plunger: movable cylinder, inserts within the barrel
  • Flange: end of the barrel where the plunger is inserted
  • Tip: point of needle attachment
classification of syriges
Classification of Syriges
  • Syringes named according to their sizes and usages
  • Types:
  • Hypodermic: intramuscular and subcutaneous injections; venipuncture
  • Tuberculin: allergy testing, allergy injections
  • Insulin: administration of insulin
types of syringes
Types of Syringes
  • Common types of syringes include:
  • Disposable
  • Nondisposable
  • Combination of the two types above
disposable syringes
Disposable Syringes
  • Sterilized, pre-packaged, ready to use
  • Sizes range from 1-60 cc
  • Labeling includes manufacturer’s name, type and size of the syringe, gauge, length of the needle, and reorder number
advantages of disposable syringes
Advantages of Disposable Syringes
  • Guaranteed to be sterile
  • Wide range of available sizes
  • Needle made of stainless steel
  • Syringe-needle unit saves time
  • Once used, the unit is discarded
nondisposable syringes
Nondisposable Syringes
  • Made of strengthened glass
  • Sizes range from 1-60 cc
  • Not often used for the administration of injections
  • Used in procedures including paracentesis, thoracentesis, and tracheotomy
combination syringes
Combination Syringes
  • Cartridge-injection system: consists of a disposable cartridge-needle unit and a nondisposable cartridge-holder syringe
  • Easy to use
  • Convenient
needlestick injuries
Needlestick Injuries
  • Needlestick safety and prevention act (1992): requires all employers to protect employees who may be exposed to blood or other potentially infectious materials resulting from needlestick or other percutaneous injuries
safety device designs
Safety Device Designs
  • An estimated 384,000 skin puncture injuries occur in the U.S. hospitals and physician offices each year
  • Up to 88% of these injuries could have been prevented by using safety-engineered needles and other devices
safety devices
Safety Devices
  • Examples include:
  • Needleless connectors for IV delivery
  • Protected needle IV connectors
  • Self-retracting needles
  • Sliding needle shields
  • Retractable fingerstick and heelstick lancets
safety practices
Safety Practices
  • Avoid the use of needles when possible
  • Use devices with safety features
  • Avoid recapping needles
  • Plan safe handling and disposal before beginning any procedure
  • Dispose of used needles in a sharps box
  • Report all injuries immediately
needle gauge
Needle Gauge
  • Range from 16-30
  • Lengths vary from 3/8 – 2 inches
  • Gauge is determined by the diameter of the lumen, or opening at the tip
  • The larger the gauge, the smaller the diameter of the lumen
  • Ex. A 30-gauge needle is much smaller than a 16-guage needle
parts of a needle
Parts of a Needle
  • Point: sharpened end of the needle
  • Bevel: flat, slanted surface
  • Lumen: oval-shaped opening
  • Shaft: hollow steel tube where the medication passes through
  • Hub: mounts onto the syringe
  • Hilt: point where shaft attaches to the hub
selecting syringes
Selecting Syringes
  • Two factors to consider include:
  • Type of medication ordered
    • Thick medications use 21-16 G
    • Subcutaneous injections should not exceed 2 cc
    • Intramuscular injections should not exceed 3 cc
  • Age/size of the patient