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  1. Sociology of Marketing Communication Cultural Methodology Kateřina Salajková

  2. Cultural Methodology 1. “Naturalistic” Research Rooted in the “ethnographic” concept of culture as an “entire way of life” The goal: = to document the particular “way of life” of a social group as it is “naturally” found 2. Discourse Analysis and Audience/Reception Research New ways to explore culture in the SYMBOLIC sense Constructing and deconstructing texts, talk and meaning

  3. “Naturalistic” Research • Traditional Ethnography • Symbolic Interaction and Dramaturgical Theory • Ethnomethology • Conversation Analysis

  4. Traditional Ethnography • The goal is simply observe a natural situation or environment, and report whatever is going on • First emerged as a method to capture and illuminate the workings of a naturally occurring world (such as a primitive tribe, or marginalized social group) • Ethnographers write from a specific subjective position, ethnography is criticized as atheoretical and descriptive approach

  5. Symbolic Interaction and Dramaturgical Theory • Roots the Pragmatists (John Dewey and George Herbert Mead) and the “Chicago School” • ‚Any human event can be understood as the result of the people involved continually adjusting what they do in the light of what others do, so that each individual’s line of action “fits” into what the others do.’ • Example: Howard Becker – his seminal study of drug use • !!!YOUR OWN EXAMPLE!!! • Becker uses ethnography to explain the complex social processes through which a particular group creates and produces meaning

  6. Erving Goffman • The role of “self” as “a social product” • Used the term “dramaturgical theory” • He emphasizes the “self” as a product of the performances and the concept of self depends on how the individual is awarded by the audience • Dramaturgical analysts focus rather on social than cultural realms of experience -) they seek to explain the nature of the self, the nature of social interaction, and the organization of the social world • Arlie Hochschild, Robin Leider

  7. Ethnomethology • Founder is Harold Garfinkel • The basic question is not how it is that society creates order, but how it is that order exist despite social action • Ethnomethology has much in common with symbolic interactionism, and “naturalist” ethnography • BUT ethnomethodologists confer greater agency and responsibilities on society’s members + they seek to explain the background rules and norms that allow interaction to proceed • Lawrence Wieder

  8. Conversation Analysis • 1960‘s, new type of ethnomethology • Emphasis on “talk“ • Conversation analysts use audio and videotape to catch and reanalyze “natural occurring bits of social action” • They study oral communication but also non-linguistic forms of expression (applause), written communication (newspaper), formal communication (political speech)

  9. Discourse Analysis and Audience/Reception Research: Constructing and Deconstructing Texts, Talk and Meaning • New ways to explore culture in the SYMBOLIC sense • This chapter explores quantitative and qualitative forms of textual analysis and various ways to analyze texts. • Additionally, audience/reception studies that highlight individual interpretation

  10. Discourse Analysis • Any type of analysis of the content of “discourse”, from quantitative “content analysis” to the interpretive analysis of abstract symbols • Example of discourse analysis is Weber’s canonical The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism – Weber uses texts (Calvinist doctrines) to get a handle on a particular (Protestant) ETHIC • Discourse analysis is usually considered as “QUALITATIVE methodology“

  11. Quantitative Content Analysis • Since 1950’s, the most widely accepted method of textual investigation in the social sciences • = Method of establishing categories and then counting the number of instances when those categories are used in a particular text or media (e.g. a television program) • Reliability and validity • E.g. George Gerbner

  12. Structuralism and Semiotics • Semiotics is the analysis of signs and sign system (e.g. myth, language, fashion) that produce meaning • Rooted in French structuralism, therefore, it is sometimes used synonymously with “structuralism” • FERDINAND de SAUSSURE: No “reason” that the sound-image of a concept has to be associated with any particular meaning – the reason we call “tree” a “tree,” and the reason that “red” means “stop” and “green” means “go”, is not because it has to be this was, but because of habit or tradition. • Roland Barthes, Donal Carbaugh, Umberto ECO

  13. Audience/Reception Studies • Highlight INDIVIDUAL interpretation • Focus on how readers/viewers interpret texts • Audience/reception analysts celebrate AGENCY – the freedom of readers/viewers to pick and choose which parts of texts to attend, and thereby create their own meaning • Example: Research of Tamar Liebes and Elihu Katz on the Hollywood television hit Dallas • Do you have any example? • Techniques: Focus Group x Media Ethnography

  14. Narrative Analysis • General term that refers to the study of narratives, i.e., structured stories with a plot, setting, and characters, as found in texts, discourse, or events (e.g. film, a social debate, etc...) • “Narrative” drives a text forward; attracts and holds our attention • Example: Disneyland • Narrative analysts systematically analyze the narratives behind and within texts

  15. Social History • Development since 1960s and 1970s • Social historians make effort to tell the story of “the people” • They rely on popular documents and texts (e.g. diaries and letters) in order to sort out the experience of “common” folk as well

  16. Cultural History • The main aim: to understand and explain cultural phenomena (historical “memories” and holidays); they are interested in understanding and explaining not only “events” and/or “products”, but system of meanings • Barry Schwartz, L.E. Schmidt

  17. Summary Thank you for your attention