html5-img
1 / 23

Cross Cultural Communication

Cross Cultural Communication. Chapter 7 Life Space. Learning Outcomes. Involvement: Specific Vs Diffuse Cultures Specific-oriented Cultures (segregate task relationship) Diffuse-oriented Cultures (involves in close relationships). Specific Vs Diffuse. How far we get involved?

haroldrice
Download Presentation

Cross Cultural Communication

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.

E N D

Presentation Transcript


  1. Cross Cultural Communication Chapter 7 Life Space Chapter 7

  2. Learning Outcomes • Involvement: • Specific Vs Diffuse Cultures • Specific-oriented Cultures (segregate task relationship) • Diffuse-oriented Cultures (involves in close relationships) Chapter 7

  3. Specific Vs Diffuse • How far we get involved? • Whether we show emotions in dealing with other people? • We engage others: • Specific areas of life and single level of personality • Diffusely in multiple areas of our lives and at several levels of personality at the same time Chapter 7

  4. Specific Vs Diffuse Cultures • Specific-oriented Cultures: • A Manager segregates (isolate) out the task relationship she or he has with a subordinate and insulates this from other dealings. • Diffuse-oriented Cultures: • Every life space and every level of personality tends to permeate all others. • Reputation always leaks to some extent into other areas of life. The extent is what we measure for specificity ( small) vs. diffuseness ( large) Chapter 7

  5. Kurt Lewin’s Model • Kurt Lewin, the German-American Psychologist, represented the personality as a series of concentric circles with “life spaces” or “personality levels” between them. • The most personal and private spaces are near the center. • Most shared and public spaces are at outer peripheries. • U –Type ( American life spaces) & G – Type ( German Life spaces) are contrasted in Fig.7.1 Lewin’s Circles Chapter 7

  6. Kurt Lewin’s Model • U-type (American) life spaces • Much more public space than private, segregated (separated) into many specific sections • Friends enter into the public spaces are not necessarily close or life-time buddies • American personality is so friendly and accessible – being admitted into one public layer is not a very big commitment • G-type (German) life spaces • Entry and access to life spaces are guarded by thick line • It is hard to enter and you need the other’s permission to enter • Public space is relatively small • Private spaces are large and diffuse – once a friend is admitted, this lets the friend into all, or nearly all private spaces. • Your Standing and reputation cross over these spaces. Chapter 7

  7. Specific Vs Diffuse Cultures • Germans may be thought by Americans as remote and hard to get to know • Americans may be thought out by Germans as cheerful, garrulous, yet superficial, who let you into a very small corner of your public life and regard you as peripheral. • Borders and barriers between “life spaces” have physical dimensions also. Chapter 7

  8. The Danger Zone Specific - Diffuse Encounter • What U –types sees as impersonal, the G-type sees as highly personal • Pleasure and pain, acceptance and rejection ramify more widely in the diffuse system • When Americans “let in” a German or French and show their customary openness and friendliness, that person may assume that they have been admitted to diffuse private space. • French / Germans for example, may be offended by criticism-as-a professional which they take to be attack-by-a –close friend. • See Fig.7.2 in this context. Chapter 7

  9. Specific Vs Diffuse CulturesLosing Face • Specific Cultures with their small area of privacy clearly separated from public life, have considerable freedom for direct speech. “Do not take it personally” is a frequent observation • In relationship with diffuse people this approach can be insult Chapter 7

  10. National DifferencesExercise 1 • A boss asks a subordinate to help him paint his house. The subordinate, who does not feel like doing it, discusses the situation with a colleague. • The colleague argues: “You don’t have to paint if you don’t feel like it. He is your boss at work.Outside he has little authority.” • The subordinate argues: “Despite the fact that I don’t feel like it, I will paint it. He is my boss and you can’t ignore that outside work either. • Where do you stand? Chapter 7

  11. National DifferencesExercise I • Fig.7.3 shows the proportion of managers that would not paint the house. • Around 80% or higher in the UK, USA, Switzerland and most of Northern Europe would not paint. • In the diffuse societies of China, Nepal the majority would. Chapter 7

  12. Negotiating the Specific - Diffuse Cultural divide • In diffuse cultures, everything is connected to everything • Diffuse culture partner would like to know many personal details • Specificity and diffuseness are about strategies for getting to know other people. • Figure 7.4 : left diagram shows the typical diffuse strategy : ( from general to specific) “circle around” the stranger, getting to know him diffusely, come down to business specifics later when relationship of trust have been established • On the right, you get “straight to the point”, to the neutral, objective” aspects of business deal, and if the other remain interested, then you”circle around” getting to know them in order to facilitate the deal. ( from specific to general) Chapter 7

  13. Cultural Context • Specific and diffuse cultures also known as Low and high context cultures • Context has to do with how much you have to know before effective communication can occur • How much shared knowledge is taken for granted by those in conversation with each other • How much reference there is to tacit common ground Chapter 7

  14. High context culture Japan and France Strangers must be ‘filled in’ before business can be properly discussed Tend to be rich and subtle but carry a lot of “baggage” Never really be comfortable for foreigners who are not fully assimilated Tend to look at relationships and connections Low context culture America and Netherlands Each stranger should share in rule-making Tend to be adaptable and flexible Tend to look at objectives, specifics and things High and Low context cultures Chapter 7

  15. Effect of specific-diffuse orientation on business • Americans prefer MBO & Pay-for-performance to motivate employees as part of their specific orientation • In MBO – first agreement on objectives ( the specifics) • Diffuse cultures approach the issue from the opposite direction. • It is the relationship between A and B that increases or reduces output, not the other way around. • Objectives or specifics may be out of date by the time evaluation comes around. B may not have performed yet done something more valuable in altered circumstances. • Only strong and lasting relationships can handle unexpected changes of this kind. Chapter 7

  16. Effect of specific-diffuse orientation on business • Japanese cultures speak of “acceptance time” : the time necessary to discuss proposed changes before they are implemented • Nemawashi concept : binding the roots of shrubs and trees before transplanting them • Fig.7.5 shows “the circling around before coming to the point” • Pay –for-performance concept not popular as it ignores role of superiors / team mates • Diffuse cultures do have lower turnover and employee mobility because of importance of “loyalty”and the multiplicity of human bonds. Chapter 7

  17. Effect of specific-diffuse orientation on business • Pitfalls of evaluation and assessment • Specific cultures easily criticize people without devastating the whole life space of the target of that criticism • Example : in diffuse culture “stealing” is not easily separable from domestic circumstances and the western habit of separating an “office crime” from a “problem at home”is not accepted. • “Frank discussion” of subordinates in diffuse cultures may be perceived as total rejection / betrayal of mutual confidence Chapter 7

  18. Effect of specific-diffuse orientation on business : Exercise -II • Some people think a company is usually responsible for the housing of its employees. Therefore, a company has to assist an employee in finding housing • Other people think the responsibility of housing should be carried by the employee alone. It is so much to the good if company helps. • See Fig.7.6 for findings of the survey. Chapter 7

  19. The Mix of Emotion and Involvement • Different combinations : • level of emotion or affectivity ( High to low or neutral ) • with its “reach”or scope ( diffusing several life spaces or remaining specific) • Four Combinations are described by Talcot Parsons. • Fig.7.7 shows four different primary response: • Diffusive – Affective (DA)– expected reward is love : a strongly pleasure diffusing many life spaces ( negative evaluation : hate) • Diffuse – Neutral (DN)– expected reward is esteem: less strongly expressed admiration also spread over many life spaces ( negative evaluation : disappointment) • Specific – Affective (SA)– expected award is responsiveness : a strongly expressed pleasure specific to certain occasion or performance ( negative evaluation : rejection) • Specific – Neutral (SN)– expected reward is approval : a job, task, or occasion specific expression of positive, yet neutral approbation. ( negative evaluation : criticism) Chapter 7

  20. The Mix of Emotion and InvolvementExercise -III • Which of the following four types of people do you prefer to have around you? Review these descriptions carefully, then circle the one that most closely relates to your preferences and the one that represents your second preference • People who completely accept you the way you are and feel responsible for your personal problems and welfare ( combines Diffuse & Affective : love) • People who do their work, attend to their affairs and leave you free to do the same ( Specific & Neutral : approval) • People who try to improve themselves and have definite ideals and aims in life ( Diffuse & Neutral : esteem) • People who are friendly, lively and enjoy getting together to talk or socialize ( specific and affective : enjoyment) Chapter 7

  21. The Mix of Emotion and InvolvementExercise –III : Findings • Fig. 7.8 shows how a number of nationalities score in this exercise • Typical American approach is quite close to the mean both for emotion and in balance between the specific and the diffuse. • Eastern and Western Germans are very similar in emotional levels, but East Germans are appreciably more specific. • Fig. 7.9 shows regional cultural differences Chapter 7

  22. Reconciling specific – diffuse cultures • Specific extreme can lead to disruption • Diffuse extreme to a lack of perspective • Collision between them results in paralysis • Interplay of the two approaches is good: • Recognizing the privacy is necessary • Complete separation of private life leads to alienation and superficiality • Business is a business but stable and deep relationship mean strong affiliations Chapter 7

  23. Practical tips for doing the business in specific and diffuse cultures • Table 1 / Pg.100 highlight the differences between specificity and diffuseness • Table 2 / Pg.100 shows tips for doing business in both cultures • Table 3 / Pg.101 shows when managing and being managed in both cultures Chapter 7

More Related