carolus linnaeus late 18thc
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Carolus Linnaeus - late 18thC

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 43

Carolus Linnaeus - late 18thC - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 92 Views
  • Uploaded on

Carolus Linnaeus - late 18thC. Species Plantarum 1753 Systems Naturae 1767 - (24) major categories of plants (Divisions) - (23) vascular ( Phanerogams ); - (1) non-vascular & vascular ( Cryptogams ). K: Plantae - Ordovician - Non-vascular - Silurian - Vascular.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Carolus Linnaeus - late 18thC' - tallis


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
carolus linnaeus late 18thc

Carolus Linnaeus - late 18thC

Species Plantarum 1753

Systems Naturae 1767

- (24) major categories of plants (Divisions)

- (23) vascular (Phanerogams);

- (1) non-vascular & vascular (Cryptogams)

vascular plants the tracheophytes
Vascular Plants - The Tracheophytes
  • 1. Have specialized cell type for conducting water - tracheids (early xylem tissue). Also has specialized cell type for conducting sugar - seive cells (phloem tissue).
  • 2. Lignin in xylem for rigid structural support.
  • 3. A branching, independent sporophyte.
vascular plants the tracheophytes 300 mya
Vascular Plants - The Tracheophytes(300 mya)
  • Non-seed Tracheophytes - haploid & diploid generations totally independent
  • - spores most prominent resting state
rhyniophyta the earliest tracheophytes extinct by devonian period 400 mya
Rhyniophyta - the earliest Tracheophytes(extinct by Devonian Period 400 mya)
  • 1. Simple vascular system (xylem &
  • phloem) in stem.
  • 2. “Leaves” flattened scales - no
  • vascular tissue.
  • 3. No roots - but rhizomes.
  • 4. Dichotomous stem branching.
  • 5. Aerial branches and sporangia at
  • branch tips.
  • 6. Spores were in groups of four (?)
  • tetrads - indicate meiosis
  • plant body - a sporophyte (2n)
  • spores - (n) ---> gameophyte (n)-->
  • sexual reproduction--> sporophyte (2n)
  • (fossil)
evolution of leaves
Evolution of Leaves
  • Leaf - a flattened photosynthetic structure emerging from the stem and possessing true vascular tissue.
  • Probably evolved from sterile sporangia.
evolution of leaves1
Evolution of Leaves
  • Leaf - a flattened photosynthetic structure emerging from the stem and possessing true vascular tissue.
  • Complex leaves arose as photosynthetic tissue developed between complex branching patterns
homospory the most primitive spore process
HomosporyThe Most Primitive Spore Process
  • one type of spore; one type of gametophyte
heterospory the most advanced spore process
HeterosporyThe Most Advanced Spore Process
  • two types of spores; two types of gametophytes
  • heterospory probably evloved several times
k plantae div lycophyta g lycopodium ground pines
K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Lycopodium “ground pines”
  • 1. Leaves small and sessile; no ligule
  • at base.
  • 2. Stems with aerial branches and
  • rhizomes; dichotomous branching.
  • 3. Branch roots originate deep within
  • main root.
  • 4. Mainly perennial.
  • 5. Low growing in temperate forest or
  • epiphyte in Tropical forest.
  • 6. Homosporous or Hetersporous
k plantae div lycophyta g lycopodium ground pines1
K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Lycopodium “ground pines”
  • Plectostele - dissected xylem
  • with phloem branches in
  • between.
    • Xylem - all tracheids.
    • Phloem - all seive cells
  • Epidermis - contains stomata.
k plantae div lycophyta g lycopodium ground pines2
K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Lycopodium “ground pines”
  • Plectostele -
  • Always a layer of parenchyma cells between xylem and phloem.
k plantae div lycophyta g lycopodium ground pines3
K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Lycopodium “ground pines”
  • Plectostele - dissected xylem
  • with phloem branches in
  • between.
    • Xylem - all tracheids.
    • Phloem - all seive cells
    • mucilaginous canal
  • Epidermis - contains stomata.
  • ExarchStele -
k plantae div lycophyta g lycopodium ground pines4
K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Lycopodium “ground pines”
  • A. ExarchStele -
  • B. MesarchStele
  • C. EndarchStele
k plantae div lycophyta g lycopodium ground pines5
K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Lycopodium “ground pines”
  • Sexual Reproduction:
  • sporophyte (2n) ---- meiosis ---->
  • ------> spores (n) --> gametophyte (n) --> antheridia (n) & archegonia (n)
  • antheridium ----> sperms (n)
  • -- fertilization --> zygote (2n) --> sporophyte (2n)
  • Archegonium ----> egg (n)
k plantae div lycophyta g lycopodium ground pines6
K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Lycopodium “ground pines”
  • Sexual Reproduction:
  • sporophyte (2n) ---- meiosis ---->
  • ------> spores (n) --> gametophyte (n) --> antheridia (n) & archegonia (n)
  • (homospores)
  • antheridium ----> sperms (n)
  • -- fertilization --> zygote (2n) --> sporophyte (2n)
  • Archegonium ----> egg (n)
k plantae div lycophyta g lycopodium ground pines8
K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Lycopodium “ground pines”
  • strobilus (2n) -
  • stem with short
  • internodes and fertile
  • appendages
  • sporophyll (2n)
  • sporangium (2n)
  • spores (n)
  • l
k plantae div lycophyta g lycopodium ground pines11
K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Lycopodium “ground pines”
  • gemmae or bulbils (2n)
  • (asexual reproduction)
  • axial sporophylls
  • g
k plantae div lycophyta g selaginella spike mosses
K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Selaginella “spike mosses”
  • 1. Herbaceous: perennial.
  • 2. Ligulate* leaves; microphyllous; spirally or alternately arranged.
  • 3. Abundant branching.
  • 4. Some vessels* in xylem.
  • g
k plantae div lycophyta g selaginella spike mosses1
K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Selaginella “spike mosses”
  • 1. Herbaceous: perennial.
  • 2. Ligulate*leaves; microphyllous; spirally or alternately arranged.
  • 3. Abundant branching.
  • 4. Some vessels* in xylem.
  • 5. Strobilus composed of sporophylls each bearing a single sporangium
  • on the adaxial surface.
  • 6. Heterosporous* reproduction.
  • g
k plantae div lycophyta g selaginella spike mosses2
K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Selaginella “spike mosses”
  • 6. Heterosporous* reproduction.
  • Strobilus (2n) --> microsporophylls (2n) --> microsporangium (2n) -->
  • megasporophylls (2n) --> megasporangium (2n) -->
  • meiosis
  • microsporangium (2n) --> microsporocytes (2n) ---------------> microspores (n)
  • megasporangium (2n) --> (4) megasporocytes (2n) ----------> (4) megaspores (n)
  • g
k plantae div lycophyta g selaginella spike mosses3
K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Selaginella “spike mosses”
  • meiosis
  • microsporangium (2n) --> microsporocytes (2n) ---------------> microspores (n)
  • megasporangium (2n) --> (4) megasporocytes (2n) ----------> (4) megaspores (n)
  • --> microspores (n) --> male gametophytes (n), antheridium --> sperms (n)
  • --> (4) megaspores (n) --> female gametophytes (n), archegonium --> egg (n)
  • dioecious
  • triradiate
  • walls -->
  • g
k plantae div lycophyta g selaginella spike mosses4
K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Selaginella “spike mosses”
  • fertilization - -> zygote (2n) --> adult sporophyte (2n)
k plantae div lycophyta g selaginella spike mosses5
K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Selaginella “spike mosses”
  • fertilization - -> zygote (2n) --> adult sporophyte (2n)
k plantae div lycophyta g isoetes quillworts1
K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Isoetes “quillworts”
  • 1. Quill-like leaves spirally attached to a corm; microphyllus and ligulate.
  • Corm - thickened underground stem. Nodes very close together.
  • Lacunae --->
k plantae div lycophyta g isoetes quillworts2
K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Isoetes “quillworts”
  • 1. Quill-like leaves spirally attached to a corm; microphyllus and ligulate.
  • Corm - thickened underground stem. Nodes very close together.
  • 2. Each leaf has 4 lacunae; stomata in epidermis.
  • 3. Some seive cells lack nucleus *at maturity - plasmodesmata with adjacent
  • cells.
k plantae div lycophyta g isoetes quillworts3
K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Isoetes “quillworts”
  • 1. Quill-like leaves spirally attached to a corm; microphyllus and ligulate.
  • Corm - thickened underground stem. Nodes very close together.
  • 2. Each leaf has 4 lacunae; stomata in epidermis.
  • 3. Some seive cells lack nucleus at maturity - plasmodesmata with adjacent
  • cells.
  • 4. Stem and root protostelic:
k plantae div lycophyta g isoetes quillworts4
K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Isoetes “quillworts”
  • 1. Quill-like leaves spirally attached to a corm; microphyllus and ligulate.
  • Corm - thickened underground stem. Nodes very close together.
  • 2. Each leaf has 4 lacunae; stomata in epidermis. *
  • 3. Some seive cells lack nucleus at maturity - plasmodesmata with adjacent
  • cells.
  • 4. Stem and root protostelic.
  • 5. Xylem consists of large numbers of parenchyma cells with few tracheids. *
  • 6. Delicate roots grow from base of corm (rhizophores); stele bound by
  • well defined endodermis*; have root caps.
k plantae div lycophyta g isoetes quillworts5
K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Isoetes “quillworts”
  • 7. Heterosporous.
  • 8. Every leaf of Isoetes is potential a sporophyll; per season -
  • sterile leaves 1st; then megasporophylls; then microsporophylls.
  • --> 1 million microspores; 50 - -> 300 megaspores.
k plantae div lycophyta g isoetes quillworts6
K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Isoetes “quillworts”
  • Reproduction:
  • meiosis
  • microsporangium (2n) -----------> microspores (n)
  • megasporangium (2n) ----------> megaspores (n)
k plantae div lycophyta g isoetes quillworts7
K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Isoetes “quillworts”
  • Sporangium massive > 7mm.
  • Velum - covering over sporangium.
  • Trabecula - strands of sterile tissue extending from the sporangial wall.
  • Tapetum - innermost layer of the sporangial wall. Indistinguishable.
k plantae div lycophyta g isoetes quillworts8
K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Isoetes “quillworts”
  • meiosis (all spores set free)
  • microsporangium (2n) ---------> microspores (n) --> male gametophyte (n)
  • megasporangium (2n) --------> megaspores (n) --> female gametophyte (n)
  • male gametophyte (n) --> antheridium (4 sperms) multiflatelated
  • female gametophyte (n) --> archegonium (1 egg)
  • *further reduction of
  • gametophyte!*
  • colorless, saprophytic
k plantae div lycophyta g isoetes quillworts9
K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Isoetes “quillworts”
  • male gametophyte (n) --> antheridium (4 sperms)
  • female gametophyte (n) --> archegonium (1 egg)
  • *further reduction of
  • gametophyte!*
  • colorless, saprophytic
  • no suspensor
  • 1 embryo develops
  • from each gametophyte
k plantae div lycophyta g isoetes quillworts10
K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Isoetes “quillworts”
  • No suspensor; delayed development
  • of the stem.
ad