Civilizations Complex societies They have cities, governments, art, religion, class divisions, and Writing.
Civilizations by Rivers • Good for farming. Drinking water Bathe water Trade route between villages
Organization of Cities • 1. Formed a government • Took charge of food supplies, building projects • Made laws to keep order • Assembled armies to fend off enemies.
Creativity • Invented ways of writing • Developed religion • Developed art • Created a calendar to tell time.
Mesopotamia • Earliest know civilization • In between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers. • THE LAND BETWEEN TWO RIVERS • IT is in the FERTILE CRESCENT
Flooding of the Rivers • Good: brought rich soil to the land. • Bad: Was very unpredictable. They didn’t know when it would happen.
Things they built to tame the rivers • Walls, Waterways, Dams, Channels, • IRRIGATION:way of watering crops using the river. • SUMER:a region in Southern Mesopotamia that many cites had formed in.
CITY STATES • Isolated little cities far apart from each other that had their own government and were not part of a larger unit. • Fighting between city states: • They fought to gain glory and control more territory. • For protection they each built a wall.
ZIGGURAT • A grand temple • The word means “Mountain of God” • At the top was a special place of worship where only priest and priestesses could enter POLYTHIESM is the belief of more than one GOD
Life in Sumer • Kings” lived in large palaces • Ordinary people: LIVED IN MUD-Brick houses. • Artisans: skilled workers hat made metal products, cloth, pottery.
Social Classes • Upper Class: Kings, Priests, Government Officials. • Middle Class: artisans, merchants, farmers, • Lower Class: enslaved people • ENSLAVED PEOPLE: were treated as property. Prisoners of war, criminals, had to pay off debts.
Cuneiform • Sumerian writing Done with a sharp reed, cut into damp clay. SCRIBES: mostly were wealthy boys. Learned to write and kept records. Usually became judges and political leaders.
Epic of Gilgamesh • Oldest known story. • Epic is a long poem that tells a story of a Hero..
Mesopotamia gets taken over • Sargon leader of the Akkadians conquered all of Mesopotamia • Set up the world’s first empire. • EMPIRE: is a group of many lands under one ruler.
Babylon • Built by the Euphrates river. • Became the center of trade. • King Hammurabi created the Babylonian Empire.
Code of Hammurabi • A collection of laws that applied to almost every aspect of life. Punishment for criminals.