African Civilizations Chapter 1 Looper
Diverse Societies in Africa Section 1
Continent of Africa • 4,600 miles from east to west • 5,000 miles from north to south • Totaling 11.7 million square miles • Occupying one-fifth of the earths land surface
Challenging Environments • Sahara Deserts are the largest in the world. • Stretching from the Atlantic Ocean to the Red Sea, equaling an area about the size of the United States. • Sahel- the southern edge of the Sahara Deserts.
Challenging Environments • Most African people live on the savannas • Savannas are made up of grassy plains • Cover 40 percent of the African continent • Support abundant agriculture production
Adapting to the Environment • Early African peoples were hunter-gathers. • The San of the Kalahari and the BaMbuti are still hunter-gathers today. • Eventually Africans became domesticated herders, or pastoralists, like the Masai of Tanzania and Kenya.
The Settled Lifestyle • Agriculture drastically changed the way Africans lived • Growing their own food allowed them to build permanent shelters, and grew because of stable food supply.
Early Societies in Africa • Early African groups organized themselves by family. • They formed religions to help organize and understand the world around them. • Animism: a religion in which spirits play an important role in regulating daily life. • Believed that spirits are present in animals, plants, and other natural forces.
Few African groups had written languages. • Storytelling played a large role in history and literatures. • The griots of west Africa kept history alive by passing it through generation of parents to children
West African Iron Age • Artifacts show that many African societies skipped the Bronze Age and Copper Age and moved directly into the Iron Age. • Earliest known West African culture is the Nokof Nigeria from 500 BC. to 200 AD. • The Nok were the first Africans to be known to smelt iron.
Djenne-Djeno • West Africa became home to many cities that formed along the Niger River between 600 BC. and 200 BC. • Djenne-Djeno is one of the cities to be uncovered in 1977. • Many artifacts were uncovered including pottery, copper ornaments, clay toys , and iron tools. • The oldest of these objects dates from 250 BC. making Djenne-Djeno the oldest city sought of the Sahara.
Migration Patterns Sections 2
People on the Move • Migration is the permanent from one country or region to another. • Three causes of migration • Environmental • Economic • Political • Push-pull factors: factors that either push people out of the region or pull people into a region
Effects of Migration • Redistribution of the population • Cultural blending of language or way of life • Shared ideas and technology • Improvement of the quality of life • Clashes of unrest may cause unrest • Change in environmental conditions • Change in employment opportunities
The Bantu-Speaking People • Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ohB416-S4nA • Cast Study: page 222-224 • Critical Thinking and Writing
The Kingdom of Aksum Sections 3
Rise of Aksum • Aksum located on the Red Sea, modern day Eritrea and Ethiopia on the Horn of Africa. • Aksum was founded by ancestors of King Solomon of Israel and the Queen of Sheba. • Center of trade through the seaport of Adulis.
Expand of the Kingdom • Height of the Kingdom between AD. 325-360 with the strong ruler Ezana. • Ezana conquered the Arabian peninsula and Kush.
International Culture • Cultural blend of Arab people and the Kushites. • As the kingdom expanded people from other ancient worlds settled among the Aksum people. • Ancient Aksum worshiped the god Mahrem and other animists forces. • With trade and expansion Christianity was introduced
Aksumite Innovation • Developed the written language of Ge’ez • First to mint their own coins • Terraces were used to cultivate the hilly land of Aksum. (step like ridges constructed on mountain slopes, helped the soil retain water and prevent it from being washed downhill from heavy rain)
Fall of Aksum • Aksum lasted for 800 years. • Decline came with the invasion of Islam into the area. • Between 632 and 750 Islamic people conquered large territories in the Mediterranean world. • With the invasion of Islam, Aksum became isolated from other settlers