Types of Fires Before attempting to fight a fire or use any fire extinguisher, it is vital to know how a fire functions. One diagram that is often used to explain how a fire begins is the “fire triangle.” The fire triangle represents the three crucial components of a blaze: oxygen, fuel and heat that is substantial enough to sustain the fire and possibly spread it. The ABCDs of Fires Understanding how a fire begins and how it functions is certainly significant, but it is just a preliminary step in fire safety. To effectively fight a fire, one must also be knowledgeable about the different types of fires that can take place. There are four main classes of fires, each having some unique characteristics, so it is of the utmost importance to assess what type of fire is developing. This will help the assessor determine the correct means with which to put it out.
Types of Fires A brief summary of the types of fires are as follows: Class A fires are those which result from materials that generally leave behind ash. The most common sources of Class A fires include wood, paper, cloth, or plastic. Class B fires are those which result from flammable liquids such as gasoline, oil, grease, or acetone. These materials will generally boil or bubble when ignited. Class C fires are caused by electrical equipment and require a current. If the source of the blaze is plugged in, it is probably a class C fire. Class D fires result from metals like potassium, sodium, aluminum, or magnesium. The odds of having to fight this kind of fire outside of a laboratory setting is quite rare.
Types of Fires and Fire Extinguishers Every fire extinguisher will be marked with the letters that correspond to the types of fires that it will fight. For example, an extinguisher may be marked BC or ABC. An ABC extinguisher will fight the most common types of fires: Class A, B, and C fires. Checking the label is key because using the wrong type of extinguisher on a fire can be dangerous for the user and can even make the fire worse. DRY CHEMICAL POWDER FIRE EXTINGUISHER CARBON DIOXIDE FIRE EXTINGUISHER MECHANICAL FOAM FIRE EXTINGUISHER WATER CO2 FIRE EXTINGUISHER
CONTROL PANELS Analog Addressable fire Alarm Systems It is a systems, which detects fire early, where in all loop devices in the systems are individually addressed to provide the panel with absolute unique identification of each devices. The systems monitors any changes caused by dust or smoke and then adjusts the calibration accordingly to maintain each sensor at its original sensitivity. The systems carries out a self-test automatically every 24 hours, as well as separate adjustment for day and night. The system can be integrated along with building management systems, CCTV and Access Control Systems ensuring total safety and security at one monitoring station
Fire trace is a simple self-activating systems, specifically designed for installation inside enclosures, cabinets and machinery housing to trigger automatically and extinguish fires at source. • It is ideal for any application where the potential fire risk is located within an enclosed or confined space.
Other Conventional Fire Detection & Notifications RESPONSE INDICATORS SMOKE DETECTOR MANUAL CALL BOX HOOTER Sand Buckets • Fire Alarm Systems • Requirements • To be provided in all areas of general use, including Hallways Lobbies. • Toilet rooms etc. • Alarm must exceed must exceed the ambient sound level but not exceed 110dB • Xenon ( Halogen ) strobe white light must be strategically places with flash. • It should be integrated into facility alarm system.
Fire hydrants are most commonly used water-based suppression systems for general fire fighting requirements. CO 2 and FM200 are commonly used for fire extinguishing gases. Larger applications also employ foam based suppression technique. Cease promotes the appropriate usage of these systems for greater risk coverage and minimum damages due to a hazard. Automatic water sprinklers are generally used where quicker responses are required. Like Department store, where garments & other expensive life-style products are displayed are expensive
Water Sprinkler Where it is used? Is it useful in all fire? How it works?
Fire Precautions & Measure Signage International Symbol
Fire Precautions & Measure Signage
Fire Precautions & Measure Emergency & Fire Lifts
Fire Precautions & Measure First Aid Box First Aid Box to be maintained under section 42 of Shop & Estb. Act must contain 3 small size, 2 medium size, 2 large size dressings 2 burn dressings 2 packet cotton wool & a pair of scissor 1 bottle each of Iodine or Mercury-chrome, Salvolatine (Dettol) & Pottasium permaganate crystal. Any Antidote for burns
Fire Precautions & Measure Few Precautions Fire Partitions Fire resistance material Shaft Enclosure Smoke barriers & smoke Partitions Fire separation distance Fire test Methods The material rated according to ability to maintain structural stability The degree to which flames, smoke & gases penetrate the assembly The degree to which the temperature increases