THE FIRES OF PERFECTION. Culture and Reform American History through 1865. Two basic impulses: Optimistic faith in human nature Desire for order and control New Types of Literature & Art Romanticism Nationalism Attempts at reconnecting religion to social life 2nd Great Awakening
Culture and Reform
American History through 1865
Optimistic faith in human nature
Desire for order and control
New Types of Literature & Art
Attempts at reconnecting religion to social life
2nd Great Awakening
Utopian societies/New religious movements
New Social Movements
Constructing a place for women in American society
Underlying all change - Why this reform movement at this time?What are the sources of America’s attempts at reform?
Sudden rise in immigration - especially foreign born
So, what is being changed or reformed?
Later – smaller groupings in society
PoliticsHow was society changing that resulted in reform movements?
Oneida - Shakers - Ann Lee
Mormons – Joseph Smith/Brigham Young
Socialists - New Harmony - Robert Owen
Transcendentalism- Brook Farm
Reforming social ills
Reforming or creating institutions
Free public education
Pennsylvania SystemFrom perfecting society to perfecting portions of society
The Course of Empire:
The Pastoral State
creating a spiritual movement outside of church with the assistance of ministers
transform society via the individual rather than via institutions
Reason & Understanding
Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Bronson Alcott
Destroyed by fire 1847
The Rise of African American Churches
Bishops of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, Library of Congress
What were the new Types of Literature & Art appearing in America? How do they reflect a new idea of who we were?
What were the various attempts at reconnecting religion to social life? What other attempts at communal reform took place during this period?
Underlying all change - Why this reform movement at this time?
Going on - What was the woman’s and the African-American’s (and other non-whites) place in American society?Break then,What are the sources of America’s reforms?
work, domesticity, education, religion, sisterhood
Cult of domesticity-
leisured (middle) class women vs. working class women
entangles women in changes in the work place/where work & business are conducted
moves women out of the public sphere and into the private (women’s sphere)
domestication of the family
Where could women exercise a public role?
caring for the poor, sick, insane, imprisonedThe women’s sphere
Lucretia Mott (abolition then women’s rights)
Liaisons to other movements
Sarah Grimké, Angelina Grimké (abolition, education, and women’s rights)
Created new movements
Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucy Stone, Seneca Falls convention (1848)
Exceptions - when women were caring for others
Dorthea DixWomen’s roles in the reform movements
“Why shall [women] be left only the poor resource of petition? For even petitions, when they are from women, without the elective franchise to give them backbone, are but of little consequence.”