The Souls of Black Folk The book was published in 1903 In his book, Du Bois explains the meaning of emancipation, the effects on the leaders of his race and their identity. Booker T. Washington was a strong leader of the African American community he had a gradual approach to end racism and to have an education on technical and industrial skills for the black community.
Life behind the veil of race, resulted in a double consciousness. Progress of race and the struggles to that progress. Freedmen’s Bureau major success was the founding of African American schools.
What problems did opponents’ have with the Freedmen’s Bureau? Pg. 16 In Du Bois’ view what were the major successes of the Freedmen’s Bureau? Pg. 20 What was the importance of education, religion, and music in the lives of African-Americans? Explain the Freedmen’s Bureau, its development, and its purpose in the South. In which situations might the color-line still function in today’s society? Explain the Sorrow Songs and discuss its use in the text. Explain Washington’s policies and how they contributed to objections . What does he ask the African–American population to give up? What are Du Bois’ criticisms of Booker T Washington’s approach? Pg. 31 What recommendations does Du Bois make that are in contrast to Washington’s ideas? Pg. 35 Why do you think Du Bois might have put the history of the Freedmen’s Bureau before the advancement of black citizens?
11. In the text Du Bois states: “To-day even the attitude of the Southern whites toward the blacks is not, as so many assume, in all case the same; the ignorant Southerner hates the Negro, the workingmen fear his competition, the moneymakers wish to use him as a laborer, some of the educated see a menace in his upward development, while others—usually the sons of masters—wish to help him to rise.” (Pg. 33-34) How applicable this statement is today? How has this idea changed since 1903?
They claimed that it was unnecessary after the war is over and its extraordinary powers are clearly unconstitutional in a time of peace. They also said it would irritate the south and pauperize the freedmen which would lead to a cost of possible hundreds of millions. “The opponents of the measure declared that the war was over, and the necessity for war measure past; that the Bureau, by reason of its extraordinary powers, was clearly unconstitutional in time of peace, and was destined to irritate the South and pauperize the freedmen at the a final cost of possibly hundreds of millions.” P. 16 The planting of free schools among African Americans. Also, the idea of free elementary school education among all classes in the south. “The greatest success of the Freedmen’s Bureau lay in the planting of the free school among all classes in the South.” P. 20 African Americans never had the right to have education, this was a great way to improve their lives and their families. Their religion and music served as a way to express themselves and to transmit their feelings to others. Education was very important as it was a means to improve a persons situation in life and bring all African Americans to equality. Music and religion were important to cope with the often difficult situations many African Americans were in. The Freedmen’s Bureau started with President Lincoln and it encourage that African Americans gained employment in labor and management. This bureau was meant to protect the various rights and the social problems of the free slaves.The freeman's bureau was an agency set up to help freed slaves after the 13th amendment. It mainly focused on building schools. The results of the bureau were mixed. The color line is a reference to the inequality of the people who live in America not as Caucasians but as African Americans. Today a minority of Americans still have prejudice against African Americans, but the laws and amendments protect all citizens equally. Access to financial aid, racism still exists, more opportunities in education on certain sides of the line, and welfare majority is African American.
6. They are the melodies of the slave songs and they contain a main idea: they were once the slaves of the world. They also represent their culture. "There is no true American music but the wild sweet melodies of the negro slave" (pg.7) A way for blacks to vocalize their suffering. 7. Mr. Washington wants African Americans to give up their political power, the insistence on civil rights and their desire for higher education. 8. Cannot lead to progress, approach makes black folk seem inferior. -strives to make blacks business men/artisans, which is impossiblewithout right of suffrage. - preaches self-respect but also submission - advocates training/school, but not higher learning which schoolsneed to stay open. Du Bois says that Washington’s plan puts too much burden on the Freedmen and not enough on the nation as a whole. 9. He says that Freedmen should push for higher education and civil rights. He also says that it is the whole country’s responsibility to right the wrongs of the past. Du Bois believed that African Americans should be given an academic education rather than an industrial one. He also wants fast integration from slavery for equality. This is different from Washington because he wants slow integration through industrial education. 10. In order to show the struggles that the freedmen had to overcome in order to become who they are now. Du Bois doesn't have faith in the Freedman's Bureau because the men leading the Bureau discriminate against blacks. He believed the Bureau was biased.
Sources: Andrew Leiter. Documenting the American South. The Souls of Black Folk; Essays and Sketches. Web: March 31, 2013 W.E.B. Du Bois. The Souls of Black Folk. Dover Publications Inc. New York. Print.