Background Information • South eastern Africa • It is a country of great natural wealth – regular rainfall, fertile land, forests, fisheries, minerals as well as its coastal location. • It has a population of about 20. 4 million • Average life expectancy is estimated to be 40.4 years • The country has an illiteracy rate of approx. 52.2 % • Mozambique is ranked 172nd in the Human Development Index
Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education • The literacy level in Mozambique is only 38.7%. • Mozambique’s case it seems this target will not be completed by 2015, however huge improvements have been made with the help of Irish Aid • Irish Aid in conjunction with the Mozambican government are trying to improve the quality of education and trying to increase the enrolment in education, especially for girls. • Over one million children still do not attend primary education in Mozambique. • In 2004 Mozambique’s school fees were abolished so that families don’t have to worry about paying for tuition • Irish Aid are striving to improve the quality of education received by increasing their aid to €11 million in 2010 compared to €5.75 million in 2007. • Teacher training has improved which means that quality of education is better.
Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality • Mozambique’s child mortality numbers are 100 per every 1,000 live births. • In 2006 Mozambique was ranked number three in the world for having the lowest doctor patient ratio for three doctors per every 100,000 people. • Child mortality is the cause of poor health care and poverty. • The main causes are diarrhea, malaria, neo-natal infections, pneumonia, premature births and complications at birth such as a lack of oxygen. • In 2004 43% of the population was using an improved water source whereas only 32% were using improved sanitation. • In 2007 alone Irish Aid gave €15.5 million to a health care fund for Mozambique. Using the money hospitals and clinics can be built and upgraded. • Irish Aid is particularly concerned with Mother and Child health care in the hospitals which includes care during the pregnancy and afterwards for mother and child. • There has been huge progress made regarding the issue of child mortality in Mozambique, Irish Aid says that ‘infant (under-1) mortality was 96 out of 1,000 in 2006, down from 109 in 2003 and 158 in 1990; child (under-5) mortality was 138 out of 1,000 in 2006, down from 158 in 2003 and 235 in 1990’ (irishaid.gov.ie) • Mozambique only 45% of one year olds are immunized. These immunizations are the BCG (vaccine against T.B.), MMR (vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella) and DPT (vaccine against diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus)
Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other disease • “HIV/AIDS is recognized as the single biggest threat to poverty reduction.” • Mozambique has the10th highest infection rate in the world (16%) • Irish Aid have made anti retroviral treatment more accessible and 100,000 now recieve it. • The Clinton Foundation provide funding through Irish Aid to help prevent HIV/ Aids. • Oxfam estimate that universal primary education would prevent about 30% all new infections in this age group.”
Goal 8: Develop a global partnership This goal states that UN members commit themselves to “develop further an open – trading financial system that is rule – based, predictable and non – discriminatory”. Foreign aid accounts for 15% of the country’s GDP and 50% of government spending over the last 10 years
Agriculture • Mozambique is an agriculture-based economy. Over 75 percent of the population is employed in the sector. • Since 1996, Mozambique has become self-sufficient in its production of grains and cereal production currently exceeds national needs. However, agricultural productivity remains considerably lower than the African average, and the sector has substantial potential for further growth.
Barriers to fair trade in Mozambique • Mozambique bases it’s economy largely on agricultural produce and specialises in trading these goods. Meanwhile, developed countries have reduced these countries’ comparative advantage in these areas (through farm subsidies and CAP). • Mozambique’s heavy dependence on exporting agricultural produce has left them in an insecure position as a natural disaster could wipe out their entire harvest • Mozambique exports mainly unprocessed goods at very low prices and then because of lack of access to technological advances they must buy back these later refined goods from developed countries at a much higher price • There is a huge gap in the use of technology between developed and least developed countries such as Mozambique which puts them at a major disadvantage • Taxes and tariffs cost sub – Saharan nations at least $1.06 on every $1 earned due to negative terms of trade
Progress • By 2012 it is hoped Mozambique could compete internationally on equal terms. • The following progress has been highlighted in the UN’s 2008 Mozambique report on development: • Trade: The Government has been creating and improving the regulatory mechanisms for business activities • International prices: The Ministry of Industry and Commerce (MIC) has access to international sources • Debt Management: The International Monetary Fund approved the cancellation of 154 million USD (100%) of debt International Trade and Regional Integration: In January 2008, Mozambique implemented a Free Trade Zone. Bilateral commercial relations with neighbouring countries have been established Information and Communication Technology (ICT): The use of ICT has experienced a significant growth