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Post World War I Nationalism

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  1. Post World War I Nationalism Chapter 15

  2. Mexican Revolution • Porfirio Diaz ruled Mexico as a dictator for 35 years • Welcoming foreign investors, Mexico appeared to be growing in peace and economy, however only an elite few benefitied • Most people lived in poverty working on haciendas • Francisco Madero, demanding free elections, lead a rebellion that forced the resignation of Diaz in 1911

  3. Revolution Leads to Change • President Carranza approved a new constitution (still used today) in 1917 that addressed land, religion, and labor. • Carranza was overthrown in 1920, and the Institutional Revolutionary Party took control of government in 1929 and accomomdated many groups in society (business, military, peasants, and workers) • Under the PRI Mexico’s government statbilized and many positive reforms were made (land distribution, schools)

  4. Nationalism at Work in Latin America • Mexico wanted to reclaim its oil fields from foreign investors • Economic- emphasis on home control of the economy • Political- Stronger authoritarian governments rose in Latin America amid the economic crisis • Cultural- pride in one’s own culture was reflected in mural paintings (Diego Rivera) • Good Neighbor Policy- US pledge to lessen its interference in the affairs of Latin American nations

  5. AfricaAfrica Resists Colonial Rule • During WWI more that 1 million Africans fought on behalf of their colonials rulers, hoping their service would lead to more rights and opportunities. • As European countries wanted to maintain their profits from cash crops, many Africans were impoverished and living in famine as not enough food was being grown. • Instead the situation stayed the same or was worse

  6. Opposing Imperialism • Many Western-educated Africans criticized the injustice of colonial rule, however most good jobs went to Europeans • As in other parts of the world, the ideas of socialism found growing audiences

  7. Racial Segregation and Nationalism in South Africa • From 1910 to 1940 whites strengthened their grip on S.A., imposing a system of racial segregation (economic , political and social white supremacy) • 1948- Apartheid (policy of rigid segregation) became a law

  8. Nationalism and an Africa for Africans • Pan-Africanism- unity of Africans and people of African decent worldwide • “Africa for Africans”- Marcus Garvey

  9. Pan-African Congress Forges Ties • A. American scholar W.E.B. Dubois organized the Pan-African Congress in 1919 • Delegates from US, African colonies, and the West Indies called on the Paris peacemakers to approve a charter of rights for Africans (demands ignored, but it established cooperation)

  10. The Negritude Movement Shows Pride • French speaking writers in West Africa and the Caribbean expressed pride in their African roots and protested colonial rule

  11. Egypt Gains Independence • 1922- after the war, riots, protests, and strikes forced Britain to grant Egypt their independence (GB still controlled the monarchy)

  12. The Middle EastTurkey and Persia Modernizes

  13. Ataturk Sets Goals • Mustafa Kemal overthrew the Ottoman sultan, defeated the Greeks (who claimed the lands after WWI), and declared Turkey a republic (Greeks leave Turkey, 1.3 million) • Kemal took the name Ataturk (“father of the Turks”) • Goal was to modernize Turkey along Western lines and separate religion from government

  14. Westernization Transform Turkey • Government built railroads, factories, and hired westerners to advise on how to make Turkey economically independednt • Ruled with an iron hand…many questioned his dictatorial powers and his rejection of religion in law

  15. Nationalism and Reform at Work in Persia • Ataturks success inspired the neighboring Persians • Reza Khan overthrew the shah, and rushed to modernize Persia (factories, roads, railroads and strenghtened the army) • Forced Persians to wear western clothes and set up modern secular schools • Persuaded the Brits to give Persian a larger share of the oil profits

  16. Arab Nationalism in the Middle East • Oil became a major factor throughout the Middle East as gas powered vehicles in WWI showed that oil was the fuel of the future • Foreign companies began to move in the Middle East to exploit its large oil reserves

  17. Par-Arabism Grows • Nationalist movement built on the shared heritage of Arabs, living in lands from the Arabian Peninsula to to North America (Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Egypt, Algeria, and Morocco) • Sought to free Arabs from foreign domination and unite them in their own state

  18. Betrayal at the Peace Conference • Arabs believed their contribution to the Allies in WWI would give them independence after the war • Instead the Allies carved up the Ottoman lands, giving France and Britain mandates to many Arab nations • Arabs felt betrayed by the West, leading to protests and revolts against Western Imperialism • Center of turmoil was the British mandate of Palestine

  19. Promises in Palestine • During WWI the Allies made two conflicting promises to the Arabs • 1-Promised Arabs their own kingdoms in the former Ottoman lands, including Palestine • 2-Balfour Declaration (attempting to win support of European Jews) advocating the idea of setting up a “national home for the Jewish people” in Palestine

  20. A Bitter Struggle Begins • 1919-1940- thousands of Jews migrated to Palestine due to the Zionist movement and anti-Semitism in Europe • Jews worked to modernize and also established farming communities • Some Arabs welcomed the new money, however tensions between the two groups rose • Even today, the two groups fight for control over the land that the Jews call Israel and the Arabs call Palestine

  21. IndiaCalls for Independence

  22. The Power of Non-Violence

  23. Gandhi’s Ideas

  24. Gandhi Sets an Example

  25. Gandhi Takes a Stand: The Salt March

  26. Breaking the Law

  27. Steps Toward Freedom

  28. Looking Ahead

  29. ChinaThe Chinese Republic in Trouble

  30. The Warlord Problem

  31. Foreign Imperialism (21 Demands)

  32. May 4th Movement

  33. The Appeal of Marxism

  34. Struggle for a New China

  35. Jiang Jeshi Leads the Nationalists

  36. Mao Zedong and the Communists

  37. The Long March

  38. Japanese Invasion

  39. Looking Ahead